The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability to discriminate friction during surface exploration using a finger and surgical instrument under normal vision and when vision was absent. Participants explored surfaces with either with the finger or with an instrument and rated the slipperiness. Results showed that the explorations with the instrument were estimated to be more slippery and less sensitive than those for the finger. There were no effects for visual condition. This study showed that novices who use instruments to make estimations of tissue slipperiness require practice and training in order to adequately perceive friction. Novices' reduced ability to perceive friction with instruments should be integrated into simulator design.
IOS Press, Inc.
6751 Tepper Drive
Clifton, VA 20124
Tel.: +1 703 830 6300
Fax: +1 703 830 2300 email@example.com
(Corporate matters and books only) IOS Press c/o Accucoms US, Inc.
For North America Sales and Customer Service
West Point Commons
Lansdale PA 19446
Tel.: +1 866 855 8967
Fax: +1 215 660 5042 firstname.lastname@example.org