This paper describes the magnitude and patterns of forces obtained by using a probe, equipped with a six-axis force torque sensor, in knee arthroscopy. The probe was used by orthopaedic surgeons and trainees, who performed 11 different tasks in 10 standard knee arthroscopies. The force magnitude and patterns generated are presented; which can support the development of virtual arthroscopy systems with realistic haptic feedback. The results were compared across both groups of surgeons. A difference in the force patterns generated by senior versus junior surgeons was noted which can aid in the development of an objective assessment system for arthroscopy skills. The results could potentially be useful to assess future performance in real arthroscopy.
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