We call it “Human Factor” because, of all the inputs to the productive process and to decision-making, it carries greatest weight and really makes the difference. It has been rightly called both “wayward” and “uncertain” (K.Popper) because, as all the literature and history have shown, it can lead to sublime but also disastrous results; to peaks of creativity, but also depths of depravity. How to harness the human potential towards constructive ends, not merely for the good of segments of humanity and to short-term advantage, but for the global good and long-term public interest has been the goal assigned to the present exploration. Lip service notwithstanding, as this report will show, the structures and the culture required for global governance – the “what”, the “how” and the “who” of global public service and public administration – have not yet received the attention which they deserve. The striking disconnect, between the current rhetoric and failure to provide convincing responses to challenges which confront our Planet Earth, account for the decline of public trust and the mood of disenchantment which is currently sweeping the world. To address this looming crisis, we must start by restoring the substance of governance to democratic government. It is becoming clear that the future of our Planet cannot be left to chance, to a sleight of the “invisible hand” or the forces of the market. The diversity and complexity of the problems facing the world call for solid institutions of multi-layer governance but, more than anything else, for a compact group of professionals with deep knowledge of the issues, solid practical experience, exceptional technical skills and above all an ethos and firm commitment to serve the global public good. Divided in two main Parts, this study offers insights into the many challenges confronting global governance, the profile and the role required of human resources to face up to these challenges and – in the Second Part – the current state of training and development of public service cadres in some of the world's regions; the problems that afflict the public service world-wide and what needs to be done to make the human factor a catalyst of change towards the World We Could Win.