“P-hacking” is the repeated analysis of data until a statistically significant result is achieved. We show that p-hacking can also occur during data generation, sometimes unintentionally. We use the type-token ratio to demonstrate that differences in the definitions of “type” and “token” can produce significantly different results. Since these terms are rarely defined in the biomedical literature, the result is an inability to meaningfully interpret the body of literature that makes use of this measure.
IOS Press, Inc.
6751 Tepper Drive
Clifton, VA 20124
Tel.: +1 703 830 6300
Fax: +1 703 830 2300 email@example.com
(Corporate matters and books only) IOS Press c/o Accucoms US, Inc.
For North America Sales and Customer Service
West Point Commons
Lansdale PA 19446
Tel.: +1 866 855 8967
Fax: +1 215 660 5042 firstname.lastname@example.org