The development of commercial scientific publishing companies in Germany commenced in the middle of the 19th century. University and Academy publishers never had a chance. Scientific society publishers emerged only in 1921/1923 during inflation, but had little impact. German publishers dominated in particular in Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry. In 1909, 45% of the articles covered by the Chemical abstracts were from German publications. Until 1933 the German language was the “lingua franca” of Europe's scientific community. The export of German science publishers was significant, and in 1930 around 60% of Springer Verlag's turnover came from export. The international significance of German science can be seen from the large number of Nobel Prizes bestowed on it: 15 German scientists were recipients from 1901 to 1915, 16 from 1918 to 1932. After 1933 many highly qualified scientists fled the Nazis and found refuge in the Western world, constituting the start of the decline of German science. During World War II German science literature was reprinted on a large scale and sold worldwide. After the War the German language had definitively lost its world significance and German companies concentrated thereafter on production of textbooks and journals for the home market. In the sixties they also commenced publication of research literature in English.
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