Progress in understanding and treating Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been tremendously bolstered by the era of transgenic models of AD. The identification of disease-causingmutationsin proteinssuch as amyloid-β precursor protein (βAPP) and presenilin1 (PS1), together with the discovery of other high risk factors (e.g., Apolipoprotein E4), as well as pathogenic mutations in the tau protein has led to the creation of several transgenic mice, including those expressing bi- and tri-genic constructs. Each model has unique pathologies that provide insights into disease mechanisms and interactive features of neuropathologic cascades. More importantly, therapeutic hypotheses are now testable in a manner unheard of less than 15 years ago. The wealth of new approaches currently in clinical and preclinical evaluations can be directly attributed to the impact of these animals on our ability to model relevant aspects of the disease. As a result, we may see containment or even the elimination of AD in the near future as a direct consequence of these advances.
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