Migration has always been a part of the human experience: human history began with the migration of our distant ancestors from their place of origin. But today, immigration is a politically sensitive subject in most of the affluent nations of the world, in many of which one tenth or more of the population were foreign born. And it is a problem which is on the increase. It is estimated that there were 75.5 million international migrants worldwide in 1960; in 2005 that number had risen to 190.6 million. This book is the tenth volume in a series from the IIAS/IISA Working Group on Administrative History, and is the result of two intensive one-day meetings and a further two years of focused attention and dedicated work. Within the time frame of the 17th century to the mid 20th century, the book examines the experience of ten countries – Australia, Austria, Belgium, Great Britain, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain and the United States – each with an important history of international migration. It shows that past migrations dramatically affected the countries studied and stimulated the development of administrative tools for dealing with international migration. When properly understood, these historical experiences can inform analysis of contemporary policy debates and this work will undoubtedly be of great value to all those involved with or interested in the subject of international migration.
Migration is a constituent part of human experience – beginning with the first nomad cultures and continuing until today and into the future when human beings will eventually leave our planet to visit outer space. To migrate to another place is, in principle, an individual choice based on various push and pull factors. However this choice may be constrained severely by one specific kind of influence so that the consequences of a decision become almost totally inevitable: for example the book of Genesis provides us with the story of Adam and Eve. In their sum, individual acts become a collective action. In a certain country at a certain time, conditions may be such that action is directed more towards emigration or more towards immigration. The direction and extent of this collective action affects the whole fabric of a society and its politicaladministrative sub-system. The system as a whole has a wide variety of possibilities to respond to that stimulus, and it may, in its turn, influence – to some extent, at least – the individual decisions forming the collective action. If this happens in a conscious and deliberate process, a phase of collective reflection and discussion precedes the political-administrative sub-system's reaction. We then encounter a complex and everchanging system of influences and counter-influences by individuals as well as by the social and political sub-system on which mankind's experience with migration is dependent. “Migration matters”
Koser, Khalid: International Migration. A Very Short Introduction, Oxford 2007, esp. p. 1–15 (“Why migration matters”).
– this introductory remark by Khalid Koser reflects the significance of the topic.
With the notion of change and even more with that of changeability in human issues, history and historians provides a particular perspective. Their description, analysis, and pondering of the past contribute to enlarging the possible number of cases that may be studied by those responsible for the future; notably to widen the scope of experiences from the present into the past and to enrich the empirical basis about mankind's actions and their consequences.
That is what the members of the IIAS/IISA Working Group on Administrative History have once again tried to do in their tenth volume. The Group's members are ‘specialists’ in their country, and as such they have prepared national reports. On the other hand, they are also ‘generalists’ who followed guidelines which were developed by the Group's Rapporteur General and enriched by in-depth discussions of all members of the Group. This method of work is part of the Group's experience and complements the ‘comparison cycle’: after a common discussion of the first version of the guidelines by all the generalists in the Group, each member prepares a national report. The Group then discusses the national reports, often resulting in ideas for a comparative conclusion. In a second and final meeting the conclusion will be discussed and finalised. The Group will then decide on the choice of its next topic. Although this book may be the result of only two intensive one-day meetings, it is also the outcome of at least two years of focussed attention and dedicated work.
So I feel grateful to the many contributors – first of all to our Rapporteur Général and editor of this tenth volume in our series, Peri Arnold, who set us a clear path and accomplished a great deal of valuable work in the common interest. In the beginning, Vida Azimi had joined him in this task providing many ideas and support, despite serious personal problems that eventually prevented her from taking part as she had wished. I should also like to extend my thanks to the members of our Group who succeeded in producing a remarkable analysis of fundamental human experiences, hopes, and fears connected with migration, from the perspective of a collective attempt to provide a certain direction. And last but not least I feel grateful to the IIAS/IISA for publishing this book in its distinguished series, and especially to Rolet Loretan, its Director General, who has continuously encouraged our work of comparative reflection about the past with respect to the future. A special thanks to Fabienne Maron, who coordinated our meetings in Paris / France in 2008 and at Leiden / Netherlands in 2009 and most efficiently helped us with our project.
I hope that this book about the past will find attentive readers who will draw their own conclusions with a view to discussing and shaping the future.
German University of Administrative Sciences, Deutsche Hochschule für Verwaltungswissenschaften Speyer, Germany
This study examines the migratory phenomenon in Greece from the establishment of the State (1833) until today. Two different kinds of migration are discerned: emigration and immigration. The study begins by examining those parameters linked to the emigration phenomenon, such as the tradition of the Greeks involved in the Diaspora, economic crises and problems involved in the slow industrialisation of the country. At the same time, the study delimits such concepts as “refugee” and “emigrant”, terms that are not always clearly distinguished. It sets out the procedure followed concerning the sending of Greek immigrants to a foreign country and the changes initiated with regard to countries of settlement (United States, Europe). It analyses the causes of emigration, provides quantitative data, draws attention to diverse administrative aspects of the migratory policy (monitoring of the country, limitations on the right of emigration, repatriation), and refers to the competent administrative bodies. In addition, the study sketches the developments in political debates concerning the migratory phenomenon (role of the “American Hellenic Educational Progressive Association” (AHEPA), opinions concerning the industrialisation of the country, the participation of immigrants in national elections). With regard to the phenomenon of immigration, two kinds of immigration (ethnic and economic) as well as their respective characteristics are noted. In the case of ethnic immigration, attention is drawn to international and bilateral treaties that regulated the massive arrival of refugees whose origins were Greek. Attention is also drawn to the competent administrative bodies which took charge of the settlement and reparation of refugees. In the case of economic immigration, the massive arrival of immigrants (of foreign and Greek origin) in the country during the 1990s is described, as well as the development of both the modern migratory policy and competent administrative bodies.
For centuries the Netherlands was an immigrant nation that welcomed people who looked for a job and/or for tolerance. Especially in the 19th century and during the 1950s emigration was larger than immigration. Since 2003 it is the only Western European country where more people leave then settle. Until the 1940s the administration of migration flows was mainly the responsibility of local governments and of private associations. Most policy and organization efforts since then have been pursued at the national level and focused mainly on the administration of immigration. In dealing with substantial minority populations, Dutch policy has changed in the past 30 years from multiculturalism to assimilation emphasizing national citizenship. It is time, though, to consider a middle ground.
Four policy and administrative eras comprise the administrative history of migration in the United States. Each period is assessed as a distinct “regime” of laws and administrative organization. These regimes are also described in terms of the historical political contexts in that created them.
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