Almost all services and most traditional services are now totally dependent on the digital environment. Few users are aware of the revolutionary nature of modern technology. Every day we use real-time access to existing digital services in our home country and social media (SoMe) to communicate with friends locally or elsewhere in the world. We can communicate with them in real time with text messages or even through real-time video feeds. People have the choice of millions of movies to watch at anytime, anywhere. Modern communications systems like satellites and submarine optical cables system connect data centers and data networks of different continents together, enabling real-time communications throughout the world. We can order different goods from all over the world, pay the invoices electronically and have the goods delivered to our door. Companies use the same channels of communication for daily communications, trading, sending invitations to tender, and transferring money through banks in real time.
As a result of these developments, people and systems produce huge amounts of data which needs to be processed and stored. However, the technical solutions for all of these new service environments are not yet in line with international standards and their connections to telecommunications and service networks are very diverse. Technically outdated solutions and new technologies are often used simultaneously. Future information and communication systems need to be designed and adapted to work in this challenging business environment where security threats and cybercrime are constantly present. Each function has its own service and communication needs depending on the user group. These groups include design and maintenance staff, financial management staff, telecom operators, service provider staff, virtual service providers and operators, administrative agents, indigenous peoples, immigrants, manufacturers, banks, etc. To date no other technology has had such a strategic impact on our society as submarine optical cable systems, and at the same time has remained so poorly understood among the general population. This is especially true even if we were to talk about the communication systems in the Arctic, systems which are a very tempting target for hackers and state actors who seek to use the undersea cables and nets that connect the continents to each other or to different parts of the Arctic communities.