This chapter assesses the implications of expanding use of commercial off the shelf (COTS) hardware and software for the cybersecurity posture of small satellites and other space infrastructure. It examines both how such COTS equipment can increase the set of threats and threat actors that space infrastructure must contend with, and also how such materials could introduce new vulnerabilities to space infrastructure. Finally, it ties these questions about the widespread and rapid adoption of COTS materials to a similar trend in the broader internet of things (IoT).
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