This chapter gives an overview of research into psychological and neurobiological factors involved in an individual’s resilience to traumatic stress. Resilience is a multifaceted construct and can be defined as (the capacity for) the dynamic process encompassing positive protection from, adaptation to or significant rapid recovery within the context of significant adversity. An extensive body of research in the psychological and psychosocial domain of resilience has identified a range of intra and interpersonal psychobiological factors, dimensions and constructs of various complexity, ranging from attentional control to optimism. Neurobiological research is still lagging behind, but studies in professionals implicate the stress-axis and various neurotransmitter systems and neuropeptides. Recent neuroimaging studies point at specific patterns of structural and functional connectivity in resilience, with a key role for the salience network.
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