Sleep is a universal sensitive indicator of well-being, driven by its role in many critical processes including metabolic regulation, emotional processing, learning, and memory. Acute and prolonged stressors are inherent to the aftermath of terrorism and can significantly contribute to two distinct forms of sleep disruption: sleep deprivation and sleep disturbances. Sleep deprivation occurs when the safe opportunity to sleep in a consolidated episode in a 24-hour period becomes significantly reduced or eliminated. Even when sleep opportunities arise, sleep disturbances can further disrupt sleep. Common trauma-related sleep disturbances include insomnia, nightmares, and other disruptive nocturnal behaviors and cognitions (e.g., simple and complex vocal and motor behaviors, night sweats). Sleep disturbances further exacerbate one’s ability to cope. Thus, sleep-targeted interventions can optimize resilience and accelerate the recovery. Individuals with a history of sleep disturbances and insufficient sleep prior to trauma exposure represent a vulnerable group of individuals. Post-trauma, individuals who report poor sleep for more than one month after a critical event are at greater risk of developing stress-related psychiatric disorders. Increased levels of indirect exposure to terrorist attacks via traditional or digital social media can also contribute to the onset and maintenance of chronic sleep disturbances. Psychological sleep-focused treatment (including Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Insomnia (CBTi) and Imagery Rehearsal Therapy (IRT) for nightmares) in patients with PTSD improves PTSD symptomatology as well as sleep disturbances, further suggesting a causal role of sleep in PTSD etiology. However, the extent to which sleep-focused interventions in the acute aftermath of trauma exposure may promote resilience and recovery remains unknown. While most individuals can cope with temporary sleep loss due to acute stressors, insufficient sleep and sleep disturbances often become chronic, which can result in a range of acute deleterious consequences and long-term physical and mental health conditions. Creating safe, sleep-promoting environments and healthy sleep behaviors that accelerate the return to homeostasis for sleep regulatory mechanisms and support resilience may prevent chronic maladaptive stress responses. The World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines strongly emphasizes the need to avoid the use of benzodiazepines for the treatment of sleep disturbances, and reinforce the use of non-pharmacological, healthy sleep practices in the acute period following trauma exposure. Guidance for the detection, mitigation and management of sleep loss in the aftermath of trauma exposure, including terrorist events is lacking. Nevertheless, the recommendations from WHO in combination with recommendations from other sources, including military publications (e.g., US Army Techniques Publication 6-22.5, A Leader’s Guide to Soldier Health and Fitness) and efficacy of psychological treatment for sleep in PTSD can provide evidence-based strategies to mitigate the adverse effects of extreme circumstances on sleep. Sleep in the immediate aftermath of a traumatic event has the added impact on memory consolidation of that event. Initial experimental data is mixed with total sleep deprivation on the first night after an analogue traumatic event preventing (in animal studies and 2 human studies) or contributing (2 human studies) to intrusive memoires and stress reactions. Further research is needed to investigate potential effect of sleep deprivation in the immediate aftermath of trauma exposure, the discrepancies between animal and human studies and the clinical significance of these findings.