The broad goals of terrorism are to 1) erode the sense of national security; 2) disrupt the continuity of society and destroy social capital (i.e. morale, cohesion and shared values). Terrorism opens the fault lines, the potential cracks, in our society and organizations. These include economic, racial/ethnic and religious. Terrorism is not a new form of war or human interaction. In the United States terrorism has a history that spans across the Klu Klux Klan, to drug gangs, shootings and hostages in organizations and schools and to the bully in the school yard. Most countries have had similar elements. Nation state terrorism is also not new and has a long history. What is perhaps new is the threat of terrorism to national security, because of the ability to span space, time and inflict greater damage. A Nation’s security is built on its military power, economic power, information systems and health. Note that health is part of this national security plan. “Without health there is no happiness” (Thomas Jefferson, third president of USA). And one can add, without happiness there also is no hope. And without hope there cannot be a nation or an organization, large scale or small. The continuity of these national security elements is critical to national security and the continuity of government. Protecting national security requires fostering, protecting and restoring resilience in the face of attacks on these infrastructure elements. Continuity of nations and organizations requires “the three R’s”: redundancy (expensive); reliability (usually machines better than people) and resilience (people are generally more so than organizations). Frequently organizations will focus on protecting building, records and funds. Yet continuity of people (i.e. Site R); functions; community/environment/culture and communications particularly to/from family may be the most critical elements. These components can inform our targets for preparing for, responding to and recovering from a terrorist attack whether we are speaking of a nation, a city, or a group-including a military unit, company, platoon, squad or special operations units (including traditional special operations, intelligence and UAV “drone” operations- the three present “special operation” which are bearing the present brunt of the ongoing Iraq/Afghanistan war in US military). There are 50 armed conflicts in the world, 18 had more than 1000 deaths in the past year. Of these, nearly all are INTRAstate conflicts usually characterized by terrorism. And how does one understand the responses to terrorism. They are best considered at multiple levels (Population (Nation), Organization (City, Family, Corporation, Division, Unit) and Individual (Servicemember, first responder, citizen). There are similarities and differences across these domains. In general consideration of continuity of operations, leadership, communications, and individual responses (resilience, distress, altered health risk behaviors; disorder) map in a 3x4 grid across the levels. In addition there is moving this grid across a timeline of an event (as well as prior to include preparation). This approach is similar to the Haddon Matrix used in understand risk of and recovery from injuries and adapted to understanding psychological responses to terrorism by the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Science (USA) to recognize the specific elements associated with various weapons (explosive, shootings, chemical, biological, nuclear).