Fake news exists in multiple forms that differ in degrees of falsity and malice. The term fake news has been used broadly for and interchangeably with “misinformation,” “disinformation,” “rumors,” and “propaganda.” While subsets of fake news, these information types nonetheless vary by their sources and motivation. By “breaking down” fake news into these distinct types of information, we believe we can better prepare for proper responses that may be taken to combat the spread of hybrid threats. Thus, the aim of this chapter is to strengthen readers’ understanding of these widespread forms of fake news – as they are observed across societies today – that can have severe consequences for civilian and military stakeholders.
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