Since 1985, under national efforts to activate a women’s workforce, the Japanese military has been grappling with the empowerment of female members. Up to today, the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force has opened all branches including combat units to women, set the “right people in the right place” as a basic principle, and hammered out measures for a right life–work balance to retain and support women as wives or mothers. Through these efforts for three decades, the JGSDF systems for gender integration seem to be almost completed. On the other hand, substantial challenges still remain in managing women. Thus there are gaps between systems and reality to be addressed by the leadership. For that, what should they learn?
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