Almost all cells in the human body are subjected to mechanical stress. These forces can vary from a few Pascals (shear stress) to some Mega Pascals (on hip cartilage). It is now well known that mechanical forces have a critical effect on cellular physiology. However, although the main biological effects of mechanical forces are well documented, the relation between mechanical stress and physiological phenomena is mainly unknown (mechanotransduction phenomenon). In this chapter, some effects of mechanical stress on bone cells (mesenchymal stem cells, osteoblasts…) are given.
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