Drug and supplement interactions (DSIs) have drawn widespread attention due to their potential to affect therapeutic response and adverse event risk. Electronic health records provide a valuable source where the signals of DSIs can be identified and characterized. We detected signals of interactions between warfarin and seven dietary supplements, viz., alfalfa, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, St. John's Wort, and Vitamin E by analyzing structured clinical data and unstructured clinical notes from the University of Minnesota Clinical Data Repository. A machine learning-based natural language processing module was further developed to classify supplement use status and applied to filter out irrelevant clinical notes. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted, controlling for a set of confounding factors: age, gender, and Charlson Index of Comorbidity. There was a statistically significant association of warfarin concurrently used with supplements which can potentially increase the risk of adverse events, such as gastrointestinal bleeding.
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