We explore how deep learning methods can be used for contract element extraction. We show that a BILSTM operating on word, POS tag, and token-shape embeddings outperforms the linear sliding-window classifiers of our previous work, without any manually written rules. Further improvements are observed by stacking an additional LSTM on top of the BILSTM, or by adding a CRF layer on top of the BILSTM. The stacked BILSTM-LSTM misclassifies fewer tokens, but the BILSTM-CRF combination performs better when methods are evaluated for their ability to extract entire, possibly multi-token contract elements.
IOS Press, Inc.
6751 Tepper Drive
Clifton, VA 20124
Tel.: +1 703 830 6300
Fax: +1 703 830 2300 firstname.lastname@example.org
(Corporate matters and books only) IOS Press c/o Accucoms US, Inc.
For North America Sales and Customer Service
West Point Commons
Lansdale PA 19446
Tel.: +1 866 855 8967
Fax: +1 215 660 5042 email@example.com