Sustainable business models and in particular Product Service Systems (PSS) are often linked to increased environmental performance. However, such benefits can only be achieved when the business model is intentionally set up to deliver those positive impacts, by incorporating issues around efficiency gains, through-life issues and sustainable consumption patterns into the design. Several start-ups are emerging who are pursuing new PSS business models but sustainability impacts are not always measured. Also, knowledge on how to iterate new sustainable business models through experimentation is sparse. This paper explores how companies can contribute to sustainable consumption through experimentation with new business models and in particular ‘pay per use’ business models. We apply knowledge on influencing consumer behaviour to develop business experiments. This paper includes an in-depth case study of HOMIE, a start-up pursuing a pay per use business model for home appliances (washing machines). An experimentation roadmap is presented for HOMIE. Effects of a range of experiments are included, such as providing information and social comparison. The pay per use business model was found to have the potential to help stimulate sustainable consumption patterns. For example, social comparison could be used effectively to stimulate more sustainable laundry behaviour. Future research could focus on mapping ideal sequences of experiments to achieve the greatest levels of sustainability impacts, and investigating other sustainable business models such as renting and sharing using the experimentation approach.
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