The efforts of preventing the spread of WMD expertise are often labeled as “scientists' redirection” are essential to redirect the scientists' skills and expertise to peaceful civilian activities. Such redirection efforts have historically boosts these activities for securing WMD materials. Human expertise in WMD science and technology poses as high a risk as acquires WMD materials. Thus, states should strengthen their efforts on ensuring personnel reliability to prevent unauthorized access to WMD-related materials. Delays in securing WMD expertise can be more alarming than comparable delays in securing WMD materials. In this paper, the efforts of the Iraqi government to reduce the threat of proliferation of dual-use expertise and materials have presented.
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