This chapter addresses the issue of foreign fighters in and out of Moldova. In addition to approaching the phenomenon from two angles, it will seek to expose some parallels between military conflicts in Transnistria and Donbas, reveal Russia's techniques to incite and sustain violence in both instances and demonstrate linkages between the inflow and outflow of foreign fighters in and out of Moldova. The first part covers the 1992 conflict in Transnistria, when foreign fighters from Russia and Ukraine infiltrated Moldova. After a brief description of the conflict, it will estimate the numbers and uncover origins of foreign fighters, reveal their motivations and track down their post-conflict careers where public sources permit. The second part will dwell on the problem of foreign fighters from Moldova in Donbas between 2014 and 2015. It will aim to approximate their numbers and draw a general profile of the fighters whose identities were fully or partially revealed. This part will conclude with scenarios assessing risks the return of foreign fighters may pose to Moldova.
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