We present an overview of the evolution of programming techniques for Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), with a particular focus on High-Level Synthesis (HLS) and Heterogeneous Computing (HC), and we argue that, in the context of High-Performance Computing (HPC), FPGAs should be treated as components of a larger heterogeneous compute platform. Consequently, HLS and HC tools become compilation targets rather than high-level development tools. Compiler technology has to evolve to automatically create the best compiled program variant by transforming a given original program. We describe our methodology based on type transformations and cost models, which allows to automatically generate correct-by-construction program variants and accurately estimate their performance, so that an optimal program can be constructed by the compilation system.
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