According to the WHO, about 80% of visually impaired persons in the world are with low visual capacity. It is considered that LVs' safe independent mobility will be improved as employing Tactile Walking Surface Indicators (TWSIs). In the night, guidelines for constructing warning blocks, a kind of tactile surface indicator, have not been well established. Therefore, crossing crosswalks is one of the most dangerous situations for visually impaired persons. We thus developed novel LED blocks that indicate crosswalk boundaries between sidewalks and roadways. This study addresses the LED blocks under various environmental illuminations and illumination from the opposite side of the crossing.
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