As Ground Water (GW) is a natural resource of vital importance, its protection against all types of threats is an absolute necessity. GW as a natural source can be effectively protected and managed using GW monitoring systems provided that, when developing such a system for a specific area of implementation, certain conditions are met and parameters are taken into account including GW recharge conditions, hydrogeological regime, land uses and GW vulnerability from surface pollution (as GW is often hydraulically connected to surface and surface water). To assess those parameters, reliable and accurate data are needed. The acquisition of such required data, regarding their economic cost and time needed, poses obstacles sometimes difficult to overcome. At this point, contemporary technologies as Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) can provide solutions. In the present paper, a combination of case studies including the identification and delineation of GW recharge areas using RS, the GW vulnerability assessment using GIS and the development of a Web based GW monitoring system that can also be used as an early warning system for GW protection, is presented. The methodologies proposed have been tested in various areas of Northern Greece providing reliable results at minimal costs. Their combined application can provide the tools to constantly monitor GW quality, to detect GW pollution at a very early stage, to select and apply remediation measures and to continuously rate them, to detect pollution sources, to support decision making regarding land uses, to help raise public awareness and overall, to ensure GW protection and sustainability.
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