Rapid advances in Information Technology have resulted in revolutionary changes in the way we run our businesses and live our daily lives. Network-Centric Operations (NCO) recognizes that interdependence (sharing information among many) is vital to an organization's future. Information must be quickly distributed, its value understood and the desired effect created. NCO occurs when systems are linked or networked by a common infrastructure, share information across geographic borders, and dynamically reallocate resources based on operational needs. NCO is an environment where seamless collaboration between networks, systems or elements within systems is possible. This network will provide decisions makers with information from thousands of cloud nodes to produce a complete picture of Cloud Manufacturing viewed as a three-dimensional chessboard. Enabling this seamless networking capability is an information and communication Strategic Architecture Reference Model (RFM). The RFM works with both legacy and future systems and platforms to ensure interoperability with nodes that follow the same set of standards. Understanding System-of-Systems Engineering (SOSE) is critical to a robust architecture development of NCO systems. There are five System-of-Systems (SoS) characteristics  but the dominating one is emergent behavior. This non-linear behavior will impact architecture development. We have little understanding of the principles of SOSE in which especially the dominating behavior of emergence. Proposed research subjects are Boltzmann distribution probability theory, and agent-based emergent behavior model, etc. Due to the immature development and diversified opinions, there does not exist a single unified consensus for processes involved in System-of-Systems Engineering.
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