The efficacy of a tutoring system for pre-algebra instruction plus human tutoring was compared to instruction provided to small groups of middle school students by experienced human math tutors, with instructional time held constant. Students completed pre- and post-tests of computation, fractions, algebra and rational numbers skills. Results indicated that students showed significant improvement from pre- to post-test, but there was no difference as a function of type of tutoring. The findings help to establish the efficacy of ITS instruction relative to skilled human tutoring of students in small groups.
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