The Australian Government launched a personally controlled electronic health record (PCEHR) system in July 2012 committing $466.7m. Currently Australia lacks a clearly articulated implementation and evaluation framework and there remains limited detail on how this system's success will be determined. These problems are especially visible in primary healthcare. The UK and US, have been advocated as models, however they have started to report points of failure arising from their approaches. Evidence suggests that alternatives need to be considered, if mistakes are not to be replicated. Insights from e-health record implementation and evaluation approaches in Denmark and the Netherlands provide Australia with other approaches. The PCEHR requires different and radical thinking around the delivery of health services. Drawing on a range of English language articles identified between 1996 and 2012, the paper generates a conceptual framework for implementation and evaluation of the PCEHR. The generation of a grounded implementation and evaluation framework in primary healthcare will reduce provider scepticism and facilitate complex changes associated with PCEHR uptake.
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