The IAEA realizes the necessary elements of a structurally sound binding legal regime, and has prepared a “fundamental document” that details the objectives and legalities of an encompassing nuclear security regime. George Moore and Miroslav Gregoric highlight the work the IAEA is doing to assist states with complying with their international obligations. At an application level, the IAEA has developed a Nuclear Security Series: a set of guides designed for use within the industry. To complement the guides, the IAEA conducts advisory missions with respect to accounting and control of nuclear material, as well as human resource development. The endeavors are further assisted by the International Nuclear Security Advisory Service (INSServ), which serves as an instrument to help states review the general status of measures to protect against terrorism. Diva Puig observes that the recommendations made by INSServ provide a platform for the foundation of a state's future implementation process. Berhanykun Andemicael highlights the need for a dialogue between the IAEA and other organizations to detect and trim overlap between the provisions and requirements of the NPT and UNSCR 1540. Pascal Daures overviews the response to nuclear security violations and the gaps the EC Joint Research Center has uncovered in the current framework for responding to nuclear trafficking cases. Matti Tarvainen notes that the safeguards obligations under INFCIRC/153 are antiquated and are thus not sufficient to deal with the undeclared and transnational nature of modern day materials trafficking. Information sharing is then essential to address these modern challenges. The IAEA has begun an outreach program to gather information, but as Tarvianen asserts, targeting intermediate traders and non-state actors requires voluntary cooperation of all states.