Just over a decade ago, nuclear security was an often overlooked subset of safety. Today, it is on the agenda of heads of states. While this is considerable progress, the rapid inclusion of security into the nuclear apparatus has left a disconnect between safety and security cultures, as well as ambiguous notions of accountability. Roger Howsley has an intimate understanding of these gaps, having worked as a security director at a major nuclear facility. He discusses the work the World Institute for Nuclear Security (WINS) is doing to address these gaps: namely sharing best practices and promoting corporate governance. Dmitriy Nikonov details the driving factors of the nuclear renaissance: energy demand, fuel prices, energy security, a changing attitude towards alternative energies, and climate change. The renaissance has increased the need for enhanced export controls. To address this issue, Nikonov discusses Articles I and III of the NPT at both the national and international level. He further outlines the obligations states have under UNSCR 1540, along with the challenges states face in meeting these obligations. Foremost among these is a lack of dedicated legal basis for implementing regulations at the national level in many countries, which of course stifles implementation. The EU, on the other hand, provides a salient example of successful implementation policies. Filippo Sevini highlights the fact that the EU developed legal framework regarding atomic energy far before the NPT came into force. This framework, namely the Euratom Treaty, established safeguards that now play a role in the design and physical protection of facilities. The success of the legal instruments in Europe has led to the development of programs aimed at improving capabilities in regions neighboring the EU. Many different programs have been started, but a clear focus of every initiative is illicit trafficking of materials.