This paper addresses the security of nuclear and radioactive material in the Black Sea region and highlights specific cases where radioactive sources have gone missing or have been stolen. The paper is divided into three parts: (1) it contrasts the ideal versus the real world situation for nuclear and radiological security; (2) it discusses the need for integrated deterrence using both first and second line defenses and explains the steps needed to improve the security of radioactive sources in the Black Sea region; and (3) it highlights shortfalls in safety and security culture and training. The paper concludes with a call for strengthening the international Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material.
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