This paper presents a navigation system for a surgical microscope and an endoscope which can be used for neurosurgery. In this system, a wireframe model of a target tumor and other significant anatomical landmarks are superimposed in real-time onto live video images taken from the microscope and the endoscope. The wireframe model is generated from a CT/MRI slice images. Overlaid images are simultaneously displayed in the same monitor using the picture-in-picture function so that the surgeon can concentrate on the single monitor during the surgery. The system measures the position and orientation of the patient using specially designed non-contact sensing devices mounted on the microscope and the endoscpe. Based on this real-time measurement, the system displays other useful information about the navigation as well as the rendered wireframe. The accuracy of registration between the wireframe model and the actual live view is less than 2mm. We tested this system in actual surgery several times, and verified its performance and effectiveness.
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