Terrorism is a multi dimensional phenomenon and this publication aims at comprehending it. This book has unique characteristics in terms of its focus on different issues; it has a comprehensive focus on the conceptualization of terrorism and understanding of it. It does not only explain the concept, it also addresses the important issues which help us to really understand why and how individuals commit such an act. Issues range from social and psychological analysis of a terrorist behavior to extremist subcultures and globalization. This publication also successfully reviews and analyzes underlying causes of terrorism and what really makes it valuable is that the chapters present the topics with relevant data which is current and up-to-date. Issues such as inequality, globalization, immigration, gender, and democracy are analyzed with research involving comprehensive data analysis. Furthermore, the book has both theoretical discussion and practical experience which makes this study a source book for the academicians and practitioners. It reflects the experience and knowledge of the authors most of whom have both academic and practical experience in the field. The chapters have the analysis based on professional experience and successful academic research.
Terrorism is one of the most important phenomena of our contemporary world. There have been several attempts to explain different aspects of this problem. This research is important for several reasons. It will enable us to understand terrorism with a comprehensive approach. Also, terrorism is analyzed from a different conceptual framework and underlying causes of terrorism with case studies are presented.
Underlying causes of terrorism, such as poverty, inequality, injustice, instability stemming from immigration, or effects of globalization should be targeted. While responding to terrorism, it should be kept in mind that fundamental human rights and liberties must be protected.
This book includes the proceedings from the NATO 2006 Advanced Research Workshop on “Understanding and Responding to Terrorism: A Multi-dimensional Approach”, which was held at the Capital Hilton Hotel in Washington, D.C., on September 08–09, 2006.
The editors of this book, Dr. Suleyman OZEREN and Ismail Dincer GUNES are members of the Turkish National Police. Both of these researchers developed independent projects to study different issues related to terrorism. Dr. Suleyman OZEREN's project titled “Sociological Approaches to the Al-Qaeda Terror Organization” and Ismail Dincer GUNES' project titled “The Assessment of Social Impact of Al-Qaeda Attacks and Overt Security Measures in Target Countries” were submitted to the NATO Headquarters in November, 2005. The NATO granted their two proposals and combined them under the Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) entitled “Social and Psychological Aspects of Terrorism.”
In line with the content of the presentations, the book has been organized under five major parts:
1. Understanding terrorism: Conceptual framework and individual and organizational terrorist behavior,
2. Understanding causes of terrorism: Multidisciplinary approach,
3. Responding to terrorism: A comprehensive review,
4. Legal aspects of responding to terrorism: A delicate balance,
5. The impact of communication and technology on terrorism: Effective facilitators.
We hope that through this book, we will have the opportunity to make a contribution to the field of responding terrorism, which is very complex with multifaceted issues.
Recep GULTEKIN, Ph.D., Head of the Foreign Relations Department, Turkish National Police
This chapter introduces the articles presented in this volume. The book is composed of five parts, all of which focus on different aspects of terrorism. Terrorism is one of the most important phenomena of our contemporary world. Understanding terrorism requires a comprehensive approach. Unless all aspects of the problem are addressed it is almost impossible to wipe out it. Therefore in order to identify effective and result-oriented strategies, it is necessary to understand the phenomenon, and to find out underlying causes. This chapter summarizes the entire volume.
The study centers upon various definition of the concept of terrorism and different arguments. This study proposes the exploitation of the concept formation in philosophy and breaking up the concept of terrorism according to its principles. It also proposes the application of family resemblance structure as apposed to dominantly use of necessary and sufficient conditions. It tries to offer method that helps to better understand the concept of terrorism. It also tries to provide a guide that shows international organization how to examine the concept. In other words states understandings of terrorism may differ from each other although they resemble. This study shows that each state determines its own definition of terrorism according to its national interest. The concept of terrorism is socially constructed. Due to different reasons, and facts different states haven't reached to a common definition for terrorism.
The goal of this paper is to offer a new perspective on the relationship between frustration and aggression. Even though the initial relationship was assumed to be between aggression and frustration, this study will present how frustration does not only lead to aggression and also how the link between frustration and behavior affect the outcome. A socio-psychological approach will be used to explain this process and a new model of relationship will be provided in the conclusion.
Instrumental and organizational theories of suicidal terrorism neglect the cultural dimension. Terrorism is not a “lone wolf” phenomenon but a “relational” process: a result of a radicalization of cultural norms and values in extremist subcultures with varying levels of moral and material support from the local culture. This essay outlines the general contours of a cultural approach to the phenomenon of Terrorism. Specifically, it applies Durkheim's typology of suicide to homicide and suicidal homicide. The Altruistic type of suicidal homicide is designated as the most intractable variety because of its high level of integration in its culture of origin, whereas egoistic and anomic varieties of suicidal homicide are manageable with requisite global mobilization and vigilance.
Especially, since the events of September 11, religious, specifically Islamic, fundamentalism has become one of the controversial issues among scholars. In his prominent book, James Barr makes a detailed analysis of Protestant fundamentalism. Two leading characteristics of this kind of fundamentalism are exclusivity and opposition. In this paper, we analyzed these characteristics, and we tested whether these characteristics may be applicable to an Islamic fundamentalist movement or not. More specifically, after making a specific definition of fundamentalism, the main features of Protestant fundamentalism, application of these features to Turkish Hizbullah, the main doctrines of Turkish Hizbullah, and a brief history of the group have been discussed in this paper.
Today terrorism has made the world more uncertain and dangerous. Nowadays the target of terrorist acts is innocent people, and terrorism poses a threat to human rights, which include the fundamental right to life. All the scientific calculations, plans of global changes in the present-day world economy and policy may strongly change, if terrorism is effective. The problem of terrorism is universal, because anyone can be its victim even without having any connection with the enemies of the terrorists. Terrorism is a brutal solution to the problem of incompatibility among people, which works by destabilizing the psychological condition of the opponent through violence, not limited by civilized morals and law. Diagnostics of terrorism, its “treatment” and prediction, consists not so much in revealing and destroying its militarized structures, but in having exact knowledge and understanding of the reasons for its existence: psychological and political instability in societies. To understand the tendencies for present and future behavior of persons, we must begin with public attitudes toward different issues of politics, economics, social life, culture etc. Maybe it does not explain everything, but the social culture is a critical element in understanding people's actions across countries or across time. If we do not take it into account, we will not be able to understand their actions.
This study tries to figure out the impact of group dynamics on terrorist decision making by exploring the nature of terrorist organizations. This study shows that preconditions of terrorism prepare a fertile condition for terrorism and specific precipitators such as anger and hate motivate certain individual's especially young people to join terrorist organizations. It also shows that terrorist organization usually try to recruit their members from the similar places, where the economic, political, and social deprivation are at most degree. The study also investigates the reason that lies behind terrorism. It suggests that provocative situational context is a first vehicle for terrorism, the impact of group dynamics has more implications than external factors. Since psychological progression toward terrorism occurs inside the organization, group think process may moderate the importance of provocative situational context. There is a direct relation between provocative situational context and group terrorist organization.
The nature of terrorism has changed due to globalization, weakness of the Arab region and American military presence in that region. On the other hand, the terrorist methods have also changed. Nowadays terrorists for instance use information technology to fund their operations and speed up their mobility. Thus, it is important to consider terrorism as a by-product of historical shifts in international relations. The effects of terrorism include initiating the clash of civilizations and increasing doubts about the democratic and liberal principles of liberty, tolerance individual rights and free dams. In addition to the military approach, there is a democratic response to terrorism. The democratic response considers terrorist attacks as a crime against humanity, calls for multi lateral global fight against terrorism, and promotes cosmopolitanism as the basis of global fight against terrorism. In conclusion, a democratic cosmopolitan approach allows us to develop tough measures against terrorism.
Global terrorism has become a major threat in the 21st century, thereby becoming the most prominent issue on the agenda of international relations. This study discusses the characteristics of global terrorism and the potential causes; why terror has become an international in the modern world. Although there are numerous sources about terrorism itself or international terrorism, few of them put sufficient arguments about the transformation process of terrorism from domestic level to the to the global level. First, what international terrorism initially reminds us is argued by making some comparisons between domestic and international terrorism. Than, briefly, the definition and its dilemma is noted. Subsequently, the historical perspective and the prevailing causes of internationalization or terror are examined more substantially. And the article ends with some concluding remarks relating the whole argument.
This study investigates the reasons that might trigger terrorism. Inequality and lack of social order lead to a state of hostility, violence, and terrorism. Anomie takes the place of social order .That is anomie occurs usually after an abrupt social, economic or political change within a community. Another reason is that loosening of the bonds between common moralities is the root source of social disorder (Durkheim). Both social disorder and anomie result from individuals motivated to live up to the cultural values of success. While inequality within the state bars some cultures and increases the differences between the groups, inequality between the states as an external force increases the strain within the state. In a situation like this it is hard to maintain the social order and equality which forms as a sense of inequity in the hearts of individuals. This in turn creates frustration and aggression in the society. Individuals who identify themselves as part of these subcultures see these threats as a threat to their personal identity and to the meaning of their life. Inequalities in the society initiate the antagonistic ideologies which find their ground in these deviant subcultures.
This study describes the relationship between inequality, poverty and terrorism. Understanding such a relationship helps policy makers to develop effective policies to encounter terrorism. Poverty and inequality are important factors that cause terrorism. Terrorism can be seen as a symptom of social disorganization and the unequal distribution of means of success in society. Inequality may work as motivating factor for people to become involved in terrorist activities.
Contemporary policy discussions regarding Islamism and terrorism too often fail to draw the distinctions between democratic and reformist Islamism, Islamism as part of a national liberation movement, and finally, militant Islamism in the form of global Jihadist organizations. This article provides a comparative examination of three key Islamist movements – the Palestinian movement Hamas, the Lebanese Hizbullah movement, and the Jordanian Islamic Action Front. These three organizations have made different choices regarding reform, revolution, democracy and terrorism. This paper explains the origins and development of each of the three movements, noting the critical importance of domestic setting and social context in determining when Islamist movements opt for ballots or bullets, with strong implications for effective counter-terrorism and pro-democracy strategies.
The purpose of this paper is to focus on the social causes of terrorists' behaviors and actions originated in the Arab society. It composes all social causes of terrorist acts whether it occurred in the Arab society or abroad as well. Moreover, it calls attention to the people in risk of becoming terrorism. This paper suggests that social causes of the terrorism in the Arab Society can be attributed to two major social deficits in the Arabs life: 1. Human development deficit within and between Arab societies, including but not limited to freedom deficit, knowledge deficit and the empowerment deficit, 2. Human security deficit (such as personal, environmental, economic, and political, community, and health and food security) in the Arab society. Terrorism can be seen as a social product of mutual interaction within societies (i.e., repression; inequalities, tortures; and violation of human rights…etc) and between societies (i.e., ignorance of the free world, support of the dictatorship, and monarchial regimes etc.) of these two deficits. Terrorism is the result of the failure to free people from fear and want within and between Arab societies and between Arab societies. The current social tension situation in the Arab society will open the social system to many changing forces which produce an unstable society with a countless number of angry people and terrorists. Those oppressed youth people will turn to violence and terrorism and do everything at their disposal to vent out their anger and frustration at these social systems.
This study tests the effects of terrorism on domestic net-migration in Turkey, especially in the terror infected provinces of the Eastern and South Eastern regions of the country between the years 1992 and 1995. In order to explore the real impact of terrorism on immigration, it used “terrorism incident rate” and the “rate of people and security forces killed” as independent variables. Also, it included the major economic effects of migration into analyses. Results of the control-series regression analysis show that the net-migration in high terrorism incident provinces is higher than the net-migration in other provinces. Findings also confirm that there was a positive relationship between net-migration and terrorist incidents during 1992–1995, when the number of terrorist incidents hit its all time highest level. Moreover, results confirm that net-migration is positively related to the number of “people and security forces killed”. In addition, economic variables, such as GDP and unemployment also related to net migration. Findings also confirm that population density and distance were related to net-migration.
Samih Teymur, Emile Sahliyeh, Ahmet S. Yayla, Ismail Yilmaz
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This study analyzes the recruitment process of the DHKP-C. In particular, the study analyzes individual characteristics, family background, and political characteristics of the families, and explores these factors and tries to find out how they affect individual's decision to join terrorist organization. According to them, about half of the terrorists came from rural backgrounds as they were born either in a village or a farm, while 22 percent were born in towns and 30% were born in cities and suburbs. Members of terrorist organization tend to come from low-income families. Finally. the political preferences of the respondents and the conditions which facilitated the respondents to join the terrorist organization indicate that the vast majority of the respondents stated that they had connections with either leftist parties or radical leftist parties before they joined DHKP/C movement.
Throughout history women have taken part in terrorist organizations. For a long time, female terrorists' low numbers and passive roles kept them out of the public eye. Recently, however, the number of female members of terror organizations has escalated, as well as the number of women in leadership roles. This increase prompts questions about these females. Who are they? Why do they choose to be a terrorist? What are their motivations and characteristics? This research proposal intends to answer these questions. This article offers wide literature review about the definition and root causes of terrorism as well as common knowledge about the motivating factors for female terrorists all over the world.
This study attempts at evaluating the Turkish National Amnesty Law of 2003. The Law being active for 6 months period, granted amnesty for the non-violent terrorists and granted pardon for the violent terrorist in case they cooperate with the law enforcement. The law aims to decrease terrorism. The monthly data is obtained for the number of armed and unarmed incidents, and number of deaths and injuries, for three time periods: 10 month before the intervention, 6 month during the intervention, and 10 month after the intervention; for the 4 major and the other terrorist organizations in Turkey. Hence, there are four dependent variables, three time series and five cross sections. After applying the Generalized Least Square in cross sectional multiple time series analysis, the study found that the policy has no impact on any of the dependent variables. There are at least three explanations of the findings: First, the terrorist organizations may escalate their activities to intimidate their associates from being the beneficiaries of the policy. Second, the beneficiaries have been un-proportionally are the associates of the terror organizations not active today. Third, the post intervention period may not be enough to assess the policy.
Abjuring a national police force, the United States relies instead on a decentralized network of federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies to fight crime, including the modern threat of terrorism. The FBI has primary jurisdiction for all domestic counterterrorism investigations and intelligence operations, but the USA PATRIOT Act and other post-9/11 homeland security measures emphasize the need for sharing national security intelligence information among agencies at all levels as full partners. This quest has been hampered by controversy and challenges of all sorts—a situation not unprecedented in American history. Following the premise that history may provide useful lessons for the present, this paper examines the roles and relationships among federal, state and local law enforcement agencies in domestic intelligence operations relating to national security during a succession of crises, from World War I to the current War on Terror. An apparent pattern emerges in which agencies at all levels mobilize with widespread public, legislative and judicial support during times of war or domestic crisis in an effort to coordinate domestic intelligence operations, but are later forced to alter or scuttle the operations in the face of legal challenges, bureaucratic rivalries, and waning public support in peacetime.
One of the controversial issues that has emerged following the 9/11 terrorist attacks is what role American local law enforcement agencies should play in response to terrorism. Those Arab and Muslim communities who are living in the U.S. were begun to seen as potential terrorists on some occasions. It is argued within this article that police agencies can use traditional tactics in order to catch and interrogate suspects of terrorist acts. However, only relying on traditional and harsh police tactics and treating all Arab and Muslim communities as potential terrorists can easily break the relationship with those communities which may help police agencies in response to their terrorism activities. Rather than just using temporary and short term strategies, policing strategies should include long term considerations. Community policing offers long term solutions to establish cooperation with Arab and Muslim communities, and to prevent certain terrorist acts. We will argue in this article that police departments who serve Arab and Muslim communities, especially those with longstanding community policing experience, can adapt strategies of community policing to establish relationship with Arab and Muslim communities, gain legitimacy in the eyes of these communities, gain intelligence from them and reducing fear among community members.
Terrorism has been on the face of the world for centuries, but not until only foreign policies and security strategies but also legal issues became a matter of controversy. After 9/11, Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism  H.R. 3162, S. 1510, Public Law 107-56 became a United States legislative law, enacted in response to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. Patriot Act's most notorious provision, Section 215, the so-called “angry librarians” provision allows federal agents to ask The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court to issue an order directing the recipient to produce tangible things in national security and terrorism cases. There are many criticisms for this provision. There are two obligations for the government: to protect civil safety and security against violence, and to preserve civil liberties. One should not be preferred over the other . They are supposed to work parallel to each other. If the government leaves one of them behind, the system will lose its equilibrium level.
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