This publication concerns three main topics: - Dynamics of effective international cooperation against terrorism: Facilitators and barriers; - Law enforcement response to terrorism in different countries and regions; - Emergency management lessons for Homeland Security. On the first topic on the role of international organizations, the barriers for cooperation and their solutions are explored. With respect to the second topic, several country’s legislative efforts against terrorism, the level of terrorism, experienced threat, and how law enforcement agencies fight terrorism in their respective states are handled. The third topic includes evaluations of the response and recovery operations that are implemented after terrorist attacks in order to enhance emergency management and homeland security policies and procedures as well as the integration of crisis and consequence management activities. The articles in this publication have been categorized in five parts: - International Police Cooperation - National Approaches to Terrorism - Responding to Terrorism - Terrorism Emergency Management - Closing Remarks This book can be a useful source to better understand and respond to the terrorism threat.
This book represents the proceedings from the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's 2006 Advanced Research Workshop on “Policing Responses to Terrorist Operations.” This Nato Workshop was held in Washington D.C. on September 8–9, 2006, along-side of two complementary workshops on various aspects of terrorism organized on the general theme of “Understanding and Responding to Terrorism: A Multi-dimensional Approach.” The event was planned and organized by the Turkish Institute for Police Studies (TIPS) with the excellent support from NATO and the Turkish National Police.
At the workshop, distinguished participants from academia and law enforcement came together to discuss how to advance cooperation levels and to explore workable ways to counter terrorism. A total of 69 participants made presentations in twelve sessions.
The workshop was organized around three main topics:
1. Dynamics of effective international cooperation against terrorism: Facilitators and barriers;
2. Law enforcement response to terrorism in different countries and regions; and
3. Emergency management lessons for Homeland Security.
On the first topic on the role of international organizations, the barriers for cooperation and their solutions were explored. With respect to the second topic, participants explained their respective country's legislative efforts against terrorism, the level of terrorism threat they experience, and how law enforcement agencies fight terrorism in their respective states. The third topic included evaluations of the response and recovery operations that are implemented after terrorist attacks in order to enhance emergency management and homeland security policies and procedures as well as the integration of crisis and consequence management activities.
Following the classification of the workshop topics, the articles in this book have been categorized in five parts:
1. International Police Cooperation
2. National Approaches to Terrorism
3. Responding to Terrorism
4. Terrorism Emergency Management
5. Closing Remarks
We hope this book will be a useful source to better understand and respond to the terrorism threat. Many thanks to the TIPS members who provided enormous help in making the event successful and to all participants for their contributions. We are also grateful to the NATO Science Programme for funding the workshop and this publication and to the Turkish National Police for their great support.
The fight against terrorism lies at the centre of the European Union's activities in the area of justice, freedom and security. It has been one of the most dynamically developing sectors of the European Union integration project in the recent years. The EU Member States have been creating this security network by a continuous harmonised approach in the area of intelligence and law enforcement cooperation. Europol is an important part of this network because it was established in response to the need to ensure protection to EU citizens against international threats. It is one of the main platforms used by the MS in this continuous cross border and multidimensional endeavour. Europol carries out its work through facilitating a smooth and secure information exchange between the MS and accredited third partners, by monitoring of terrorism related information, by providing operational support, ensuring analysis of criminal intelligence provided by MS and other sources and by conducting threat and risk assessments. Europol in close cooperation with the MS and its partners will accordingly improve its counterterrorism mechanisms and will adapt to new policy responses as elaborated by the EU political leadership.
Since the events of September 11, many police institutions across the globe have reorganized and expanded their counter-terrorism strategies. In view of the international dimensions of contemporary forms of terrorism, international police organizations take a special place among these counter-terrorism efforts. In this paper, I analyze recent counter-terrorism efforts that have been undertaken by Interpol, the International Criminal Police Organization, and by Europol, the European Police Office. Both organizations offer specific models of international police cooperation against terrorism, with respective problems and prospects for an effective police cooperation in matters of international terrorism, which this paper discusses.
Latest developments in the world have shown that International Organizations (IO) have an important role in mediating conflicts and assisting states in their fight against terrorism. However, there is considerable literature in the field of international relations on the role of IOs and there is a debate as to the effects of IOs over states. While realists argue that states do not matter, liberalists argue that IOs are an important part of international relations. Both arguments hold at different stages of the life cycle of various IOs. In that sense, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), United Nations (UN) and European Union (EU) have been examined. While establishment of some IOs can be explained by realist explanations, the decision making procedures of some IOs are better explained by liberalist arguments.
Terrorism is a common threat to most countries in the twenty-first century. Terrorism, like other crimes that transcend borders, creates a number of complications for law enforcement and is a potential challenge for police forces throughout the world. International cooperative ventures in policing have confronted a number of obstacles. Although international police cooperation is not a new area of study, as transnational crime and the concomitant increase in terrorist activities, the need for police services from different countries to cooperate effectively has become a paramount concern. This paper examines various barriers to international police cooperation engaged in fighting.
Today, international law enforcement organizations are grappling with creating pathways to share necessary information to cope with the rise in transnational crimes. While it is important to recognize that sharing information crosses over geographical, cultural, and value-based differences, it is even more important to understand that this sharing can only happen if it includes technology and tech support for both gathering and disseminating the information. A review of recent research and current information-sharing protocols from international, national, and regional law enforcement agencies provides a list of barriers (legal, technical, political, organizational, and managerial), but emphasizes the advantages of creating a system for sharing information and technology between the developed and developing countries.
It is apparent today that terrorism requires a global response and a well-built international cooperation. Such response and cooperation may only be achieved by utilizing effective legal instruments, such as extradition, among states. It has become routine for people to hear diplomatic crises between states as a result of rejected extradition requests which sometimes lead to big public demonstrations. It is high time states considered ways to create workable extradition systems and thereby, advance the level of sincere cooperation.
International police training -training offered by the police of one country to the police of other countries- has a long history. A recent development is training offered by international police academies, such as the International Police Academies (ILEAs) created by the US in Hungary, Thailand, and Botswana; the Middle European Police Academy (MEPA) jointly created by Austria and Hungary; or the attempts by the European Union to start a common police academy for police in members states. The paper will examine the original, organization, policies, and training offered by TADOC (Turkish International Academy against Drugs and Organized Crime), place its creation within the larger context of international policing assistance efforts, and speculate on the likely impacts of training offered on the performance of participating police forces.
Because of increasing technology, telecommunication, and transportation, crime activities have become borderless. Therefore, the needs of international cooperation and establishments are undeniable. However, the current state of international cooperation can be characterized as too formal and too limited due to so many barriers, such as technical and policy-related barriers and cultural barriers. To overcome these problems, it is proposed that of an International Institute for Police, Research, and Training (IPRT) be established in Turkey. The purpose of this article is to understand why international cooperation is necessary, the role of Turkish National Police (TNP) in the international arena, the role and structure of IPRT, and why this center should be instituted in Turkey.
Terrorism has a long history in humanity and the roots of terrorism lie not so much in psychology but in anomalies: political, territorial, ideological, religious. On the other hand, a state has to struggle with terrorism whether it has got such a complex structure or not. The lawful guarantee of anti-terrorist activity is the most important prerequisite of successful opposition both to domestic and international terrorism. We will try to give characteristics of terrorism in the laws of Azerbaijan.
Terrorism is one of the main priorities of Turkey. By the means of separatist terrorism, Turkey has had many sorrowful experiences and lost more than thirty thousand people. As a democratic country, Turkey takes important measures to overcome this problem. Legal regulations are at the front line on these efforts. The first big step was the enactment of the Prevention of Terrorism Act (PTA) by the Turkish Parliament. In this article we try to give some details about major amenmendts done in 2006.
An overview of recent terrorist activities in Kyrgyzstan was provided from the perspective of Kyrgyz law enforcement. In that context the nature of terrorism in the region, and particularly, the compositions and objectives of terrorist groups were discussed. Further analysis led the author to touch upon the current challenges posed by international terrorism to the Central Asian countries in general, and to provide the views for further perspectives on the war on terrorism. Emphasis was placed on the importance of global cooperation in countering terrorism in Central Asia.
Terrorism, information warfare, political violence and gray-area phenomena are becoming burning problems of the international community. Transnational threats -terrorism and organized crime- cut across national boundaries and are beyond the control of individual governments. With the trend toward globalization, the action of fighting terrorism is becoming a global task which requires the international cooperation of different countries and their governments. The paper examines the cooperative actions in Georgia of fighting terrorism as an example to demonstrate the importance of international cooperation and a practical suggestion for accomplishing it.
Due to the new wave of danger of trans-national crime in a time of globalization and considering that organized crime and terrorism are becoming more prevalent and global, the European states are prepared to leave behind a part of their national sovereignty to establish closer cooperation to address these problems. Otherwise, the states are left out and can not prevent and fight these problems as isolated national governments.
Even though open borders and advanced technology enabled fast development of international trade and global commerce, they have also led to a dramatic increase in the number of criminal groups engaged in activities throughout nations, regions, and continents. These trans-national criminal organizations have acquired huge assets that are further used for other illegal activities. Establishing joint international cooperation for law enforcement institutions based on a powerful legal foundation is the only response to these emerging criminal threats. The international documents and projects relating to the development of regional cooperation in South-East Europe represent an excellent opportunity for efficient cooperation toward the end of organized crime prevention and suppression. Having received country-candiate status for European Union (EU) membership in 2005, the Republic of Macedonia actively contributes to strengthening confidence between the foreign services partners in the fight against crime.
Today the world community, with great concern, observes the process of activation of international terrorism, which consists of the threats and realization of large-scale terrorist attacks that are directed at the distribution of an atmosphere of fear and panic, political and economic instability, and discrediting of the democratic principles of human existence.
The active foreign-policy activity of Ukraine, participation in numerous international actions, including counterterrorist actions as well as the number of external and internal factors coincide with an increase in the probability of terrorist attacks on the territory of the Ukraine.
The Republic of Armenia (RA) has been an active member of the global campaign against terrorism. The following article focuses on the national and international legal initiatives that the RA (Republic of Armenia) has introduced to facilitate terrorism prevention and counterterrorism within the RA and the CIS member states.
This article studies different social aspects of terrorists and terrorist organizations in an effort to better deal with terrorism, especially in the long run. The researcher, who also worked as a Police Captain at Turkish National Police Anti-Terrorism Department, seeks solutions to today's global problem by studying both literature and a Delphi examination of a survey of 1070 imprisoned terrorists. The researcher through his examination of the findings of the data presented that terrorism is a social phenomenon with criminal consequences that needs to be dealt by means of two dimensional approaches. The first is the social dimension of terrorism and the second is the criminal dimension of terrorism. Based on this, the researcher constructed a conceptual model which addresses both of these dimensions under the titles of long-term solutions and short-term solutions.
This article looks at the following fundamental issues related to the global initiative against terrorism from a European perspective: 1) Problems in definition of terrorism, legal definition of terrorism; 2) Terrorism: its kinds, reasons and aims; 3) Legal policing (policies) regarding terrorist operations; 4) Protection of human rights and anti-terrorist policing (policies).
Meeting the threat of terrorism is difficult given the vital demand of addressing current contingencies. However, it is important to place the threat in a broader context to combat a form of violence, armed conflict, and warfare that is a manifestation of changes in the international environment. Moreover, those changes have both organizational and operational implications for individuals and organizations that are responsible for preventing, deterring, and responding to terrorism. This paper addresses the demands placed on those within a growing counterterrorism community who must engage in their own form of innovation to meet an enduring and also growing threat.
The intent of this paper is to contribute to our understanding of Intelligence Led Model of Policing (ILP). Specifically, we consider the origins of the move to ILP and provide examples of promising practices in policing that we believe highlight the promise of the ILP model. The paper concludes by advocating for a broad conceptualization of ILP that views ILP as an overarching framework for law enforcement that embraces community policing, problem solving policing, a continuous improvement managerial philosophy, and an 'all-crimes' focus.
Illicit goods cross invisible and visible barriers of borders, social regulation and control, and societal norms using largely the same supply chain mechanisms and technologies employed by legitimate organizations. Illicit market participants evade and elude traditional control mechanisms, and, in some cases, capitalize upon systemic gaps or failures to deliver legal or illegal goods in prohibited environments or distribution channels. This paper facilitates an examination of the complexity and common elements of supply chains and organizational environments across functions and international boundaries, and articulates the link between illicit market activities and terrorist organization funding. Insights into constraints and operations of illegal and enforcement activities generate constructive theoretical and research directions for developing intervention and disruption strategies.
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