Ebook: Desertification Combat and Food Safety
This publication brings together desert and camel scientists from Western European countries, Mediterranean countries and Central Asian Republics. Scientists from Central Asia are confronted with the demanding challenge of desertification and maintenance of animal productivity in order to satisfy human requirements both in quantity and quality. The problem is complex and solutions need a multidisciplinary investment. The knowledge of the desertification process and the place of animal production in desert ecosystem is increasing in many countries. New approaches and methodologies have been implemented for a better observation and understanding of the situation. Desertification Combat and Food Safety contributes to the exchange between scientists in order to allow access to those new approaches and methodologies by all desert and camel scientists in the involved countries. Most contributors are well-known in the camel sciences community. All of them have significantly contributed to a better understanding of camel biology, camel productivity or of the camel as an element of the desert ecosystem. The confrontation of the research achieved in those countries with the scientific activities achieved in Central Asia is quite important. It contributes to the improvement of the methods used in those countries and at the very least helps the scientists from Central Asia to access more recent publications and to reach the international standard for publications.
The international workshop on Desertification Combat and Food Safety – The Added Value of Camel Producers was a good opportunity for the meeting between desert and camel scientists from Western European countries, Mediterranean countries and Central Asian Republics. Scientists from Central Asia are confronted with the demanding challenge of desertification and maintenance of animal productivity in order to satisfy human requirements both in quantity and quality. The problem is complex and solutions need a multidisciplinary investment. The knowledge of the desertification process and the place of animal production in desert ecosystem is in increasing in many countries. New approaches and methodologies have been implemented for a better observation and understanding of the situation. The present workshop contributes to the exchange between scientists in order to allow access to those new approaches and methodologies by all desert and camel scientists in the involved countries.
Most of the foreign participants to the workshop are well-known in the camel sciences community. All of them have significantly contributed to a better understanding of camel biology, camel productivity or of the camel as an element of the desert ecosystem. The confrontation of the research achieved in those countries with the scientific activities achieved in Central Asia is quite important. It contributes to the improvement of the methods used in those countries and at the very least helps the scientists from Central Asia to access more recent publications and to reach the international standard for publications. A great effort is still necessary and this workshop has to be continued by specific collaboration between research institutes or universities. The meetings and informal exchanges allowed by the workshop were a first step towards future collaboration.
Some final recommendations were proposed as is usual in such scientific meetings. However, recommendations are fruitful if all participants play their part in the achievement of them, inside their discipline, or field study, and if we are collectively able to convince policy makers to support such and such research or development aspect.
The co-directors of this workshop are indebted to NATO and secondly to the French Embassy for their support in this workshop. Three institutes were involved in the general organization: one French (French Agricultural Research Centre for International Development – CIRAD) and two Turkmen Institutes (National Institute of Desert, Fauna and Flora – NIDFF, and National Institute of Livestock and Veterinary Medicine (NILVM). Their collaboration was able to overcome the traditional difficulties of organizing a meeting gathering forty scientists from seventeen different countries.
Dr Bernard FAYE and Dr Palmated ESENOV, Co-directors and Scientific editors
For a long time, camel sciences focused mainly on diseases and traditional use with some studies involved in physiological adaptation aspects. For the last decennia, new trends in camel and desert sciences could be observed. In analytical sciences, new data on blood and milk biochemistry, molecular genetic and immunology increased. Furthermore, new technologies in reproduction and in milk production processing were proposed through international cooperation between scientists, including high interaction with private sector. The adding values of camel products, especially milk, were studied in some cases. New techniques for intensification of camel farming were proposed and tested in farms, both for reproduction and production. In veterinary sciences, ecopathological approach was still rarely developed, except to study diarrhoea on young camel. Moreover, systemic studies, with the aim to consider camel into their ecosystem, were rarely engaged except for wild camel in Australia. Finally, economical studies of camel sub sector both at national level and in international trade is the main lack in camel sciences today. According to these trends, advances research in camel sciences could be supported by the international scientific community and funding agencies by promoting the role of camel and camel farming in desertification combat and food security in arid lands.
The present paper describes the reasons and consequences of the desertification process in the different republics from Central Asia after the collapse of Soviet Union. The diagnosis of the situation is quite worrying both for environment and for human population and their economic activities including livestock.
In Turkmenistan, dromedaries of the Arvana breed created as a result of long selection. The pasture conditions in Karakoum desert which occupy area more than 38 mln ha make possible to maintain significant herd of camels. They using to the fodder an upper part of the suffrutescent bushes and do not limit the possibility of the growth of sheep and goats livestock. Camels do not disrupt the ecology of deserts, as showed the special studies by ‐Research Institute of Livestock and Veterinary Science. Because of the extreme insufficiency of irrigation water in the territory of Turkmenistan for many years the basic form of animals remained sheep and the camels, their number in the former Transcaspian region in was respectively 5784 thousand of heads and 457 thousand of heads without taking into account their livestock in Lebap and Dashoguz regions. The enormous loss of livestock was substituted with the coming of the Soviet regime. The significant part of the cattle is slaughtered to the meat and was driven away beyond the country borders. In 1941 on the entire territory of Turkmenistan there were remained only 2596 thousand head of small livestock and 79 thousand heads of camels.
At that time the camels basically used as working animal and they widely were used on the agricultural works, for the loads transportation the fulfillment of tillage, treating of soil, etc. Therefore the main direction of stock‐breeding work was connected with further consolidation of sizes and increase in the living mass, which should lead to an increase in its general capacity for work. The current selection allowed to get a heavy and high productive Arvana breed for milk, meat and wool.
The camel, since its domestication, 6000 years ago  has mainly had a utilitarian role, and man has always maintained emotional and symbolic links with him, the importance of which might be proportional to the dimensions of the animal and to the services he provides to the men of the desert. This attraction has lasted until present times in the Southern as well as in the Northern countries, obviously for different reasons.
Mauritanian Moors describe the desert as a huge dromedary herd in which each dune represents a lying animal. This way of describing landscape allows nomads to memorise a route and to explain it to others. Dromedary fulfils the dreams of some of us, helps others to describe their environment, and has been inspiring poets from the pre‐islamic times to the present.
But it also recalls cliched imagery based on ignorance and prejudice, which confine it to the past or even obsolete positioning. This ambiguous relationship is reflected in social behaviours, in popular symbols and in the ways some development policies are being implemented. Nowadays, relationships with the camel in both Northern and Southern societies respond to two diverging trends: on the one hand marginalisation, on the other hand idealisation.
The camel is present in Turkmenistan for a long time and was used mainly for traction. Some archeological traces are still existing to certify the presence of Bactrian camel and dromedary camel in some parts of the country several millenniums ago.
The paper describes the place of camel in the Indian society and economy, especially in Rajasthan. In a current project, the improvement of camel use was supported by a participatory approach for production and disease prevention.
The wild Bactrian camel is found in the Gobi and Gashun Gobi deserts of North West China and Mongolia. While vegetation is sparse, the desert itself varies from rocky mountain massifs, to the flat pavement‐like areas of the extremely arid desert; stony “gobi” desert plains; poplar fringed oases; vast washed‐out plains and high sand dunes. For 45 years, this area of the Gashun Gobi was the nuclear test site area of China. In spite of this, the Wild Bactrian Camel survived and is apparently breeding naturally. In some areas in the absence of fresh water, it has adapted to drinking salt water slush.
The wild Bactrian Camel is facing a population size reduction of 80% within the next three generations. This projection is based on observations made during five expeditions (1993 ‐ Mongolian Gobi and 1995, 1996, 1997, 1999 ‐ Chinese Gobi). The population is the target of continued hunting. Suitable habitat in China (the main stronghold for the species) is being lost through illegal mining. The proposed construction of a gas pipeline and the associated industrial development will also have a major impact on the main Chinese subpopulation of Wild Bactrian Camel and its desert eco‐system. The effects of hybridisation with domestic camels both in Mongolia and China and increased human competition and economic pressures within the designated desert habitat of the wild Bactrian camel, have also contributed to its decline. The Mongolian subpopulation is known to have declined by 46% since 1985. However, due to increased hunting and wolf predation it is now expected that 25‐30 animals will be lost annually. Based on these observations, it is estimated that there will be at least an 84% reduction in the population size by the least 20 animals are killed annually) there is no reason to expect the situation for these subpopulations to be any different.
The Wild Camel Protection Foundation, as part of it work to save the wild Bactrian camel, and its unique habitat has started with the full support and co‐operation of the Chinese and Mongolian governments, a multi language environmental education and public awareness programme in north west China and Mongolia. The plan is to produce a series of booklets which can be used in the local, national and regional environmental programmes in these two countries. Where possible these materials will be used in schools and for teaching teachers. To date two booklets have been produced one on the wild Bactrian camel, “The King of the Gobi” and the second on “Desertification”. We are currently preparing the 2nd and 3rd booklets.
While main aim of the programme is to disseminate environmental information, some of the other aims are to raise awareness in the local population of important environmental issues relating to water and desertification; involve the local population in, and, obtain their support for, the protection of the biodiversity of the nature reserves and protected areas and develop mechanisms for exchanging environmental information.
Traditional stockbreeding affecting minimally fragile arid pastures is one of the methods to combat desertification. The camel (Camelus) is one of the best‐fit species for arid regions. There is no other species, which is so biologically adapted to the conditions of deserts and semi deserts than the camel. This adaptability to arid environment is determined by their specific morphology, physiology, anatomy and ecology. It exceeds other domestic animals in producing foodstuffs, at the same time affecting the arid pastures minimally. Therefore the unique characteristics of this animal are of great economic interest.
Camel‐breeding is one of the most ancient ways of stock‐breeding. However currently it experiences serious drawbacks in the world and Russia as well. It was stressed at the UNEP international conference in Kenya (1986) that, ‘in arid pastures camels play an important role in facilitating the environmental protection and restoration of degraded lands, and also contributing to human adaptability to the desert’.
In the Russian Federation camels are raised in the republic of Tyva and Kalmykia, in the Altai Krai, Volgograd, Astrakhan and Saratov regions. About 40% of the stock are two‐humped camels (Camelus Bactrianus), raised in the Republic of Kalmykia, Astrakhan, Volgograd and Saratov regions.
Bactrians are represented by the three separate breeds: Kalmyk, Kazakh and Mongolian. According to experts' estimates the most valuable yet not numerous are Kalmyk bactrians. This species was introduced to Russia early in the 17th century during the Kalmyk migration from western Dzungaria to the right bank of the Volga river, which is now the territory of modern republic of Kalmykia and Astrakhan region.
Republic of Kalmykia is characterized by recent catastrophic degradation of natural pastures. This deterioration of ecological situation in the republic can be accounted for gradual decline of the traditional for the region stockbreeding (horse‐, camel‐ and coarse‐fleeced sheep breeding), which was replaced by fine‐fleeced sheep‐breeding. Currently the population of Kalmyk Bactrian in the republic is no more than 500 animals.
Severe continental climatic conditions favor the raising of Kamyk Bactrian with their unique biological and productive qualities. This will contribute to some extent to the improvement of the situation and optimization of the natural resources in semi‐deserts and deserts.
Turkmenistan is a mainly desert country (80%). To combat desertification a national programme was set up including research institutes and local decision makers. The German cooperation (GTZ) contributed to the different actions for desert control. The programme includes economic, social and technical aspects.
This article quotes reported data of researches on camel's diseases. Among the infection diseases the most widespread is brucellosis. There is specific preventing practice developed against brucellosis with use vaccine gained from culture Rev‐1.
The dangerous infectious disease for camels is plague. For this case it is recommended vaccination and treatment. In 1940‐s in range of regions of Turkmenistan camel's smallpox was registered. Mainly camels aged 2‐4 years had been undergone with this disease. To combat the smallpox the vaccination and treatment is recommended. Significant damage caused for camel farms by protozoal and vectorial diseases. Authors described ways of diagnosis, prevention and treatment.
Most often met helminthosis among camels are larval teniasis. Main preventing measure in this disease is dog treatment. There were developed 4 yearly preventing dogs helminthosis prophylaxis. In Turkmenistan there is often encountered sarcoptosis. At this disease it is recommended to use sulfuric compound in the form of ointment and powder with the addition of component “K”.
The present paper gives a list of the main camel diseases with some pictures.
Fungi that reproduce by asexual spore formation only are known as “Fungi Imperfecti” which include the vast majority of fungi animal pathogens. These include Epidermophyton, Microsporum, Trichophyton, Sporotrichum, Candida, Cladosporium, Coccidioides, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Histoplasma capsulatum, and Aspergillus fumigatus. Most of these fungi have been reported to cause various diseases in camelids. Fungi in the genera Trichophyton and Sporotrichum are the most prevalent fungi in camelids. Trichophyton verrcosum, T. mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis and M. gypseum have been isolated from camels in upper Egypt while T. dankaliense was isolated from cases of ringworm in camels and humans in the northern and Ogaden areas of Somalia. Ringworm due to T. schoenleinii has been recorded in camels from Iraq and India. Other Fungi also reported to infect camels include T. rubrum, Allescheria boydii and Mycelia sterial.
Direct contact ith other infected animals or the use of contaminated utensils is the common method of spread. Introduction of new camels with subclinical infection is usually the source of infection to susceptible herds. Other rarely reported fungal diseases of camelids include candidiasis caused by Candida albicans, cryptococcosis due to Cryptococcus neoformans, aspergillosis due to Aspergillus fumigatus, Histoplasma capsulatum var farciminosum, Sporotrichum schenckii, Rhizopus spp, and Conidiobolus coronatus infection.
Mycotoxicoses is a potential hazard of fungal toxins in foodstuffs. Ryegrass staggers as a clinical disease has been diagnosed in cattle, sheep, horses, alpacas and llamas following the ingestion of mycotoxins produced by the endophyte fungus Acremonium lolii. Phalaris poisoning caused by Phalaris aquatica grass has been diagnosed in an alpaca in Australia in regions where sheep losses also occur from poisoning. Mycotoxicosis from the fungus Epchloe typhina has been reported in llamas following grazing tall fescue grass. Some strains of Aspergillus flavus produce aflatoxins, which are toxic to the liver.
Diagnosis of fungal diseases can be achieved by direct examination of clinical materials, isolation on specific media, various serological tests, histopathological examination of tissue biopsy specimens, experimental animal inoculation transmission, and intradermal allergic tests.
Antifungal drug therapy has been used to treat camels suffering from fungal infections. Various drugs are commercially available in the markets. These include amphotericin B, nystatin, grisseofulvin, imidazoles, ketoconazole, clothimazole, fluconazole, itiaconazaole, and sodium iodide. Prevention and control of fungal diseases depends upon elimination of the infection by isolation of infected animals, and preventing spread by hygienic precautions and the use of vaccines.
Economy of Kyrgyzstan and majority of kyrgyzstanee depend on agriculture. Both poor and well‐off people earn their living by farming and livestock breeding. The problems that they face in agricultural production are far from being resolved, but have tremendous and still not identified potential for farmers. The «Rural Advisory Service» (RAS) established in Kyrgyzstan can render such services as help in problems resolution, spread knowledge, new ideas and information essential for farmers. RAS offers training for farmers in their interested topics, adaptive researches, group formation, individual and group consultations, exhibitions and different campaigns.
RAS is closely collaborating with many programs the objectives of which are aimed at efficient and viable management of natural resources and establishment of reliable and adequate infrastructure as basis for economic and social development. One of them is Central Asian Mountain Partnership (CAMP) “Efforts integration for sustainable support of mountainous regions”. Within framework of this collaboration CAMP and RAS have found common activity which is aimed at support and spread of the best examples of water and soil use through training activities of the Extension services for farmers; collaboration with WOCAT (the world review of soil and water saving technologies).
RAS and CAMP conduct training activities for farmers and rural inhabitants on soil and water saving technologies collected by WOCAT in Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and Tajikistan. At the conference in Ashgabat out of 40 technologies may be the following ten will be presented:
• Preservation of warmth and moisture in soil in growing of ecologically safe agricultural products by thermostatic method (Kyrgyzstan)
• Technology of biohumus receiving (Kyrgyzstan)
• Bottle watering of vegetables and melons and water‐melons (Kyrgyzstan)
• Irrigation of difficult of access plots for self‐flowing irrigation water with the help of hydraulic pump of the «Hydrotaran» type (Kyrgyzstan)
• Pasture rotation for sheep (Kyrgyzstan)
• Reclamation of stone land for orchard (Kyrgyzstan)
• Minimum treatment of soil for cereals growing (Kazakhstan) lands.
Camels are known to outperform any other species under severe climatic and nutritional stresses however several by biological and pathological factors are involved in overall camel reproductive efficiency. The present paper summarizes our state of knowledge regarding camel reproductive efficiency and factors affecting it.
Amongst the biological limitations to reproductive efficiency in camels, late onset of puberty in both the male and the female and long lactation anoestrus are probably the most commonly cited. Age at first parturition and interval between parturition varies from 36 to 71 months and from 17.5 and 51 months, respectively. The great variability of these reproductive parameters suggests implication of several other factors that remain unstudied such as nutritional level, breed differences and health. Selection and better nutritional management can achieve improvement of these parameters. Inter‐calving interval is improved tremendously by early weaning. Average number of days between weaning and mating is 7 to 20 days.
Pregnancy rate (or conception rate) or birth rate of females in reproduction and varies 12% to 85%. The most common components of poor fertility are increased early pregnancy loss and abortion, which may be as high as 40%. Substantial advances have been made in recent years on the methodology of diagnosis (ultrasonography, culture and biopsy) and treatment of cause of infertility and reproductive losses. Studies on causes of abortion and methodological approach for the study of reproductive losses are still lacking. Male infertility is also still poorly studied.
The last component of reproductive efficiency in camels is represented by high neonatal losses ranging from 10 to 90% of the calf crop in some situation. Causes of neonatal losses have been studied to some degree but merit further investigation.
Ejaculates were collected from male camels using an artificial vagina and diluted 1:1 (v:v) in Green buffer, before a total of 300x106 live sperm was inseminated into each female camel 24h after injection (i.v.) with 20µg of the GnRH analogue, Buserelin, to make them ovulate. Further ejaculates were collected, diluted in Green Buffer as before, and stored in an Equitainer (Hamilton Thorn, Canvers, MA, USA) at 4°C for 24h before insemination. While pregnancy rates of 50 ‐ 60% were achieved with camels inseminated with fresh diluted semen, the conception rate decreased to 25% in camels inseminated with semen cooled for 24h.
For embryo transfer, donor camels were treated with a combination of 2500 iu equine Chorionic Gonadotrophin (eCG) and 400 mg porcine Follicle Stimulating Hormone (pFSH). When the follicles had matured to between 1.3 ‐ 1.8 cm in diameter the camel was mated, and the uterus flushed, non–surgically, 8 days later. The recovered embryos were either i) directly transferred, non‐surgically, into recipient camels at day 6 after ovulation, ii) cooled in embryo flushing media for 24h in an Equitainer at 4°C before transfer or, iii) deep‐frozen using 1.5M ethanediol as the cryoprotectant and using slow, controlled‐rate cooling methods before thawing, rehydrating and transferring into recipient camels. A pregnancy rate of 67% was obtained after transfer of fresh embryos into day 6 recipients which was similar to that obtained after transfer of embryos cooled for 24h at 4°C (63%). However the pregnancy rate was much reduced to 32% after transfer of frozen/thawed embryos into recipient animals.
These results show that using assisted reproduction techniques it is possible increase the number of offspring from desirable genetic combinations.
The camel population decreased dramatically in Kazakhstan. However a selection programme was set up for milk and meat production improvement. The perspectives are described.
If it is agreed that camel has the ability to produce more milk than cow in similar conditions. However, the camel milk productivity is not well known. Data from the literature are scarce and mainly issued from observations in research station, more rarely from pastoral areas where performance monitoring is not common. Elsewhere, the data are not homogeneous from one author to another: mean daily yield, total yield per lactation, herd average… So, the comparisons are not easy. Furthermore, a high variability of reported productions appears which lead to suppose a potential for the selection on that criterion. This selection is possible but rarely achieved except in Soviet Union time for dromedary and Bactrian camels.
The world production of camel milk is officially estimated to 1.3 million tons in 2002. However, according to the high level of self‐consumption and of the individual potential, probably this production could be higher (i.e. 5.4 millions tons). The individual production varies between 1000 and 12000 litres per lactation according to some sources. The lactation curve is similar to bovine with a better persistence. The lactation length is very variable (from 8 to 18 months in general), i.e. longer than for dairy cattle in similar conditions. Obviously, the feeding and seasonal conditions have an impact on those performances. Some intensified systems occurring in many places showed good prospects in camel milk production to supply populations from arid lands.
The ability of camels to cope with food or water shortage is exceptional, thanks to several mechanisms of adaptation, including mobilization of body fat reserves during underfeeding and regeneration when food is available.
In camel, the adipose tissues are mainly located in the hump (external) and around the kidney (internal perirenal fat, PF) and consist mainly of cells able to store lipids (adipocytes). However, the measurement of adipocyte size was scarcely performed, and no data are available on the variations of plasma leptin, an hormone which is secreted by adipocytes in mammalian species and could play a major role in the regulation of energy homeostasis.
Recent experiments showed that the mean adipocyte size is similar between hump and PF, and was 100‐700 picoliters in 70 adult male or female camels, in the range of values observed in cattle and sheep. Hump or PF weights were positively correlated and better explained by adipocyte size than number. Hump adipocyte size was positively correlated to hump height‐hemicircumference and to hump lipid content. Hump biopsies during experiments with different levels of food or water allowance showed that adipocyte size decreased during a 2‐month underfeeding, and this decrease was more marked when camels were previously overfed, whereas adipocyte size was not affected by 3 weeks of water deprivation. However, dehydration increased fat mobilization, with an increase in plasma non‐esterified fatty acids and a decrease in hump lipid content.
A radioimmunoassay was developed for camel leptin, using antibodies raised against sheep leptin. Plasma leptin concentration was 2‐9 ng/ml, and positively correlated to hump lipid content or adipocyte size, but less closely than in cattle. It was not affected by underfeeding nor overfeeding, contrary to what was observed in cattle and sheep. Plasma leptin increased steadily (+ 20 %) during 3 weeks of water deprivation, and returned rapidly to the control level after 6 hours of rehydration. Further studies will precise the role of leptin in the adaptation of camels to desert conditions.
As other dairy products, camel milk and its products must comply with national and international quality and safety standards. Standards are basically divided into microbiological and physico‐chemical ones. There are yet no major proven differences between camel milk dairy products and those of any other dairy animal, thus the level of bacterial cleanliness and product safety applied for camel milk could not be lowered or disregarded.
The role of such proposed standards will be the assurance that standardized camel milk will not pose any health risk to the consumer. Pasteurization is the accepted technology to achieve this aim, and the assurance of a proper heat treatment is an inevitable step in establishing pasteurization schedule for camel milk. Nevertheless, pasteurization may not eradicate all pathogens. Therefore, it is mandatory to study, identify and monitor the bacteriological flora of incoming raw milk and post‐pasteurization milk. Finally, it is important to provide the authorities with suitable tools to assure that milk was properly pasteurized. Acceptable physico‐chemical standards to ascertain proper pasteurization must be developed. Alkaline phosphatase test (AP) is the acceptable mean to assure proper pasteurization for bovine milk. However, it seems that camel milk AP is heat stable and can not fulfill the role of an indicator. Other means to assure proper pasteurization of camel milk are being studied such as tests based on the inactivation of γ‐glutamyltransferase (GGT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH).
A following step would be the establishment of product identity and purity. This should include major milk constituents: water, fat, protein, lactose and minerals, as well as specific camel milk biochemicals. Steps towards achieving this goal have already started in various countries around the world.
Camels and are increasingly viewed as an economic asset for arid lands. The first way to tap the economic potential of any animal resource is to use the milk. Easier said than done, when mobile low‐density herds roam far from market centres. However, it is possible, and Tiviski's experience in Mauritania proves it. To sell significant quantities of dairy products the first requisite is a market, and therefore suitable packaging. If the target market is a modern city, modern packaging requires some form of microbe‐reducing processing, e.g. heat treatment. Therefore a (small) modern dairy is the main link between camel herders and the market. The link between the dairy and the market is standard; but the real challenge is the link between the milk suppliers and the dairy, i.e. the collection of camel milk from scattered herders. In Mauritania free‐ranging camels are milked by hand in the morning and the evening ; twice a day, regular and 4x4 pick‐up trucks collect dozens of milk churns along varying routes on dirt‐tracks and sandy paths and deliver them to collecting centres belonging to the dairy. Camel milk can be pasteurised following the same methods as cow milk, although products involving curdling, particularly cheese, call for special know‐how. The best plant to process camel milk is a simple, inexpensive mini‐dairy, which can break even at a low production level compared to conventional dairies. Camel milk cannot be sterilized, as it is destabilized by high temperatures. By following simple quality control procedures based on HACCP, Tiviski markets high‐quality end products and provides an income for a large number of herders, giving camels renewed glamour as cash‐earning livestock.