Generally, part-whole relations are modeled using fragments of first-order logic(FOL) and difficulties arise when meta-reasoning is done over their properties, leading to reason outside the logic. Alternatively, classical languages for ontological reasoning such as Description Logics + Logic Programming lack of expressive formal foundations resulting in ambiguous interpretations of relations. Moreover, they show some difficulties to prove that a given meta property is logically correct. In order to address these problems, we suggest a formal framework using a dependent (higher-order) type theory such as those used in program checking and theorem provers (e.g., Coq). All properties of part-whole relations are formalized through abstract constructs called parameterized specifications (p-specifications). We detail their content and explain how they are suitable to build an ontology of formal properties that can be further used for reasoning about higher-order properties.
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