Do simple animals, even single-celled animals, display general intelligence? If we take this to mean that they can cope with their environment, even when it is dynamic, the answer would have to be yes. What is it that gives them this easy capability, yet makes it hard for us to design systems which have it? We suggest that it is from the non-determinism which arises from the lowest levels of their operation, and from the way in which the different levels of their operation interact. We propose techniques whereby these might be incorporated into artificial systems.
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