Primary consolidation settlement has traditionally been estimated using 1-D linear elastic consolidation theory with various assumptions. Due to theoretical limitations, measured settlements in many cases are not in agreement with those predicted. One of the major limitations is the application of small strain theory to large strain deformation. Another limitation is the stress dependent behaviour of soil deformation. This paper summarizes the various factors affecting settlement predictions and compares results from conventional 1-D small strain theory, finite different modelling, finite element modelling applying large strain theory and the stress path method. The results are compared with actual field monitoring data from recent projects in Singapore at the Changi East Land Reclamation and Ground Improvement Project. The reasons for variations in measured results are also discussed.
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