Risks and hazards of most new nanotechnologies cannot be completely predicted in the laboratory. Therefore the introduction of such nanotechnologies into society amounts to a societal experiment. I propose four conditions under which such societal experiments with nanotechnology are acceptable (absence of alternative testing methods, controllability, proportionality of hazards to benefits and informed consent). In addition, four conditions for the responsible set-up of such experiments are proposed (monitoring, feedback, conscious scaling-up, containment of hazards).
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