The paper presents a new approach for systems with electronic identification documents equipped with simple RFID tags. We assume that document verification is performed offline, but the number of document verifiers as well as the number of documents is controlled by the document issuer. The primary application in mind are visas on a paper sticker with an inbuilt RFID circuit. We also aim to provide simple solutions based on paper stickers with simple RFID for club cards, customer ID cards, public transportation multi-usage tickets, soccer game tickets, etc.
With this application in mind, we consider a model in which document verifier may leak all verification information to a third party. This must not lead to possibility of forging RFID identification documents. Moreover, verification process should support privacy and provide no transferable proof of presence of a given person at a given place and time.
Designing a system with such properties is possible with asymmetric cryptography implemented in identity documents. In contrast, we present a lightweight solution, such that the document is hard to clone without physical access, verification can be performed by entitled agents only and without online contact to a central database. Despite this high functionality, the hardware requirements for RFID circuit remain relatively low.
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