The objective of this study was to determine the muscle activities of upper extremities while performing fundamental surgical training tasks using a virtual simulator. Six subjects performed virtual cutting tasks and their muscle activities of upper extremities were measured. The results demonstrated a significant increase in muscle activities in both proximal and distal upper extremities, which are the common areas of occurrence of injury after prolonged practice. This study suggests that the upper trapezius and the extensor digitorum are essential prime movers to perform surgical training tasks. These muscles should be monitored for performance assessment in future studies.
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