Natural Orifice Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) is potentially the next paradigm shift in minimally invasive surgery. Currently, NOTES procedures are performed using modified endoscopic tools with significant constraints. New tools are necessary that allow the surgeon to better visualize and dexterously manipulate within the surgical environment. In this study, a two-armed dexterous miniature in vivo robot with stereoscopic vision capabilities has been developed that addresses many of these constraints. The design and kinematic configuration of the robot allows for its complete insertion into the peritoneal cavity, and provides intuitive visualization and sufficient force application for tissue manipulation within the dexterous workspace. The NOTES robot successfully demonstrated various capabilities in a non-survival natural orifice surgical procedure in a porcine model suggesting the feasibility of using miniature in vivo robots for performing natural orifice procedures within the peritoneal cavity.
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