The rise of Blockchain has seen its potential use cases proliferate across every conceivable domain, including the space sector. Ironically the great strength of Blockchain, its attributes of immutability, anonymity, centrality and governance could also turn out to be focal points for exploitation. This paper focuses on the utility of Blockchain to the space industry.
Ron Mahabir, Raid Al-Tahir, Bheshem Ramlal, Intesar Saeed, Olga Gkountouna
273 - 293
Land degradation involves a wide array of natural and human induced factors that affect agricultural productivity. These factors can exist in various non-unique and complex combinations of different environmental settings, often making detection and monitoring of the phenomenon a difficult undertaking. As a result, no universal approach exists for the assessment of land degradation. In order to be efficiently and effectively managed, this phenomenon should be assessed and quantified in a systematic manner so as to identify the causes, processes and factors leading to degradation nationwide. This study attempts to assess the vulnerability of watersheds to land degradation island-wide, based on the use of Geoinformatics tools to combine in situ and satellite-derived information on existing degraded areas in Trinidad. Nine biophysical attributes were considered; six from in situ measurements (i.e. soil type, soil texture, soil drainage, erosion status, geology and land capability) and three derived from satellite data (i.e. elevation, slope and NDVI). Specific values for these attributes were taken at degraded sites and generalized to watersheds, and then assessed using multi-criteria analysis. Results obtained by the developed methodology showed good agreement with existing knowledge on land degradation in Trinidad, especially for the North Western part of the island. They also showed that soil drainage and erosion status were found not to be affecting factors of land degradation at the watershed scale. This approach can be adopted as a simple and objective way of assessing land degradation vulnerability, supporting more detailed analysis in data-sparse regions.
Ulpia Elena Botezatu, Cosmin Nistor, Alina Radutu, Vlad Olteanu, Iulia Dana-Negula
294 - 309
Satellite navigation and Earth Observation programmes have quickly grown from military niche systems to large scale societal dependencies. One could say that this is not a negative aspect at all, however, as for many of the current innovative technologies, society is ready to use but not ready to understand the principles behind it and the associated vulnerabilities and risks to which they expose when they become directly dependent of them. This paper aims at presenting the current level of involvement of satellite navigation and Earth Observation services in different societal settings, going from day to day experiences up to applications in critical infrastructures. The paper addresses also the possible impact that HILF (High Impact Low Frequency) events from space would have on such systems. By that, this paper contributes to the ongoing discussions on the importance of space technologies for societal benefit.
The US government considers aviation to be a critical infrastructure as reflected in government publications developed after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Aviation represents a large part of the US economy and pilots are integral to its operations. Concerns about pilot shortages have grown because the expected growth in air traffic in the coming decades will require many more pilots. Pilot unions are complaining that low pilot pay and the cost of training to earn a commercial license is making it unaffordable for prospective pilots. Cyber security vulnerabilities are likely to increase as the NexGen air traffic control system comes online and more automation is used in the aviation system. Cockpit crew composition has shrunk as technology was developed to reduce the number of crew required and this process will continue until fully autonomous commercial passenger transports are a reality.
Critical infrastructures are those infrastructures with an important role in ensuring security in the functioning of systems and in the conduct of economic, social, political, informational and military processes. Critical infrastructures of the health system, protection of the citizen, family and community are the following: networks of emergency hospitals, laboratories, drug warehouses, infrastructures of medical research centers, etc. The health system in Romania includes various telemedicine applications used for medical services in the country, in disaster management and emergency services. More and more we see that terrestrial critical infrastructures are increasingly dependent on space systems as a critical service provider.
Outer space assets and services are the backbone of our current technological and economic lifestyle, as well as for the safety and security of citizens. At the same time, this dependence on space services and technologies comes with the need of their preservation when are faced with a number of risks and dangers, including intentional interference, space debris and radiation emanating from space weather phenomena, to name a few. In this context, this article presents some of Romania’s pursuits and achievements in the direction of protecting critical infrastructures related to provision of space services. It will first look at major trends at international level, before deepening the understanding of the work undertaken by Romanian Space Agency (ROSA). By working within the frameworks of the United Nations, NATO, European Union and other international bodies, Romania assumes responsibility and dedication for protecting vital assets and services.
The United States Department of Defense (DoD) funds a plethora of projects worth between multi-million and multi-billions of dollars. These projects rely heavily on software and information systems to keep pace with technological changes and emerging global threats, and thus are critical to the overall safety and security of the United States (U.S.). As a result, acquisition, implementation, and disposal of these technologies have become more expensive. Simultaneously, the nation’s increased political and financial upheavals have made sequestrations more prevalent today than years prior, with increased calls to reduce funding to the DoD, and more generally, the Federal Government. To curtail spending and adapt to today’s dynamic landscape, project managers within the DoD are looking to new project management methodologies. Most program managers and executives have identified and selected the Agile process to keep their software-intensive project deliveries on-time and on-budget. Successful application of the Agile process, which conforms to DoD standards, has been difficult for most programs to ascertain. In fact, there is little formal guidance on how to apply the Agile process to conform to these standards. This paper explores the benefits and limitations of Agile Project Management and conduct a thorough analysis of DoD and other federal government agencies’ implementation of the management technique to identify problematic areas. Agile Project Management involves an iterative approach to project planning, to guide the development of the product. Similarly, engineering management combines engineering expertise with organizational management to drive the development and sustainment of complex projects throughout their lifecycles. This work defines the scoping and tasking best suited for Agile to better support engineering management decisions for DoD systems.
Mircea Cernat, Ulpia Elena Botezatu, Violeta Domnica Poenaru, Dan Alin Nedelcu, Vlad Turcu
359 - 372
Space Situational Awareness (SSA) refers to utilisation of, and access to space through the provision of timely and accurate information and data regarding the space environment, and particularly regarding hazards to infrastructure in orbit and on the ground. This article discusses the Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) segment of the Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) by highlighting emergency procedures for space objects, in the framework of Romania’s participation in the EU_SST Consortium. The article details the all-sky MOROI network for detecting NEO objects as part of ARGOSS project.
Maria Ioana Vlad Sandru, Ion Nedelcu, Alina Radutu, Daniela Cimbru
373 - 393
This article is a descriptive endeavor of highlighting the overview of the dimension, the domains and education priorities which bring the geospatial sector into society-occupational profiles in Romania. First, it looks at geospatial technologies as a multidisciplinary field, followed by the last trends and geospatial data use. Secondly, the paper concentrates on the status of national occupational and qualification system in Romania, geospatial technologies in education and what provides a geospatial competency framework. The present research ends by developing a curriculum for geospatial data research analyst which contribute to both academia development curriculum and industry development job description.