Iron is a crucial transition metal for life and is the most abundant transition metal in the brain. However, iron's biological utility as an effective redox cycling metal also endows it with the potential to catalyze production of noxious free radicals. This “Janus-faced” nature of iron demands a tight regulation of cellular its metabolism. This regulation is crucial in the CNS, where iron plays myriad keystone roles in CNS processes, including mitochondrial energy transduction, enzyme catalysis, mitochondrial function, myelination, neurotransmitter anabolism and catabolism. Aberrations in brain iron homeostasis can elevate levels of this redox-active metal, leading to mislocalization of the metal and catastrophic oxidative damage to sensitive cellular and subcellular structures. Iron dyshomeostasis has been strongly linked to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), as well as other major neurodegenerative diseases. Despite the growing societal burden of AD, no disease-modifying therapy exists, necessitating continued investment into both drug-development and the fundamental science investigating the disease-causing mechanisms. Targeting iron dyshomeostasis in the brain represents a rational approach to treat the underlying disease. Here we provide an update on known and emerging iron-associated mechanisms involved in AD. We conclude with an overview of evidence suggesting that, in addition to apoptosis, neuronal loss in AD involves “ferroptosis”, a newly discovered iron- and lipid-peroxidation-dependent form of regulated necrosis. The ferroptosis field is rapidly progressing and may provide key insights for future drug-development with disease-modifying potential in AD.