Ingar Brinck, Christian Balkenius, Birger Johansson
303 - 312
We argue that social robots should be designed to behave similarly to humans, and furthermore that social norms constitute the core of human interaction. Whether robots can be designed to behave in human-like ways turns on whether they can be designed to organize and coordinate their behavior with others' social expectations. We suggest that social norms regulate interaction in real time, and agents rely on dynamic information about their own and others' attention, intention and emotion to perform social tasks.
It has been argued that human sociality has an intrinsically normative grammar: not only do norms guide our own behaviour, we have normative expectations concerning the way others behave, including how they take and treat us. These expectations shape our experiences concerning the social world. This paper explores three theses: 1) The normative grammar need not be a matter of “commitments”. 2) While we need to operate in the “intentional stance” in interaction with robots, to implement a fully “personifying” stance would be a category mistake. Social robots form a new category, new vaguely demarcated “social grammar”, with genuine normative expectations and experiences. Rewarding experiences caused by responses from robots need not be deceptive, although taking a fully “personifying stance” would be deceptive: the dichotomy between full persons and mere things is too coarse. 3) Recognition from others is central in the social basis of self-esteem. Feedback from robots is an interesting combination of objective non-social feedback and some kind of simulated recognition: robots can send real recognitive messages even when they themselves are not recognizers.
One aspect of social robot navigation is to avoid personal space intrusions. Computationally, this can be achieved by introducing social costs into a robot's path planner's objective function. This article tackles the normative question of how robots should aggregate social costs incurred by multiple personal-space intrusions. Of particular interest is the question whether numbers should count, i.e., whether a robot ought to intrude into one person's personal space in order to avoid intruding into multiple personal spaces. This work proposes four different modes of aggregation of the costs of intrusions into personal space, discusses some of the philosophical arguments, and presents results from a pilot study.
Robotics has made its entry into the sphere of intimacy, thus our notion of intimacy will need to play a central role when we consider the future direction of social robotics. The aim of this on-going research project is to understand the emotional relationship between human and artificial agents, and furthermore, to reflect upon the effects of social robotics on the quality of human intimacy. Our methodological approach consists in a combination of film analysis and qualitative interview. In this paper, we offer brief analyses of the films that are specifically concerned with the theme of love, intimacy, and romance in relation to robots and non-physical artificial agents. Two films were selected for this purpose: Her and I am Here, both of which were produced by Spike Jonze. We then propose a working theoretical framework that guides our future empirical studies.
Robots will eventually become capable of engaging in norm-regulated interactions with humans. But do people perceive them as equivalent moral entities? We will present two psychological studies (one completed, one ongoing) on the perception of robots as moral patients. Our data suggest that robots are afforded a certain degree of moral consideration in the face of malevolent as well as benevolent actions, yet systematic differences to humans still remain. We will attempt to explain these empirical findings as a function of the level of human likeness of appearance and behaviors of robots, using visual vignettes.
This paper aims to understand why human beings develop empathetic attitudes towards robots. Whilst much research studies this issue from the perspective of the natural sciences, by referring to biological features of the human brain, it is also possible to investigate it from the perspective of the humanities by referring to humans' cultural features. After establishing animation as a necessary condition of empathy towards robots, the presentation delivers a hypothesis that magical thinking – typical for children, members of “primitive” societies and individuals with mental disorders – is involved in the empathetic relations with robots. Furthermore, arguments to defend and clarify this hypothesis are presented.
This paper focuses on the concept of the human being and anthropomorphism developed in Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) research. The underlying assumption is that robot users are often viewed as organisms who respond ‘automatically’ to anthropomorphic cues provided by the robotic systems rather than assign meanings to the robot's appearance and behaviour. This has fundamental consequences not only for how one conceives anthropomorphic robot design but also and above all for how one understands humanness. While one could expect that the human being will be compared to the machine, the underlying assumption in this paper is that such an approach is largely shaped by the human-animal analogy. Thus, this paper employs the symbolic interactionist perspective to discuss the main factors contributing to the analogies between humans and animals in HRI research. The ultimate goal is to challenge the human-animal analogy and the dehumanisation it generates in and outside the HRI field.
This workshop at Robophilosophy 2016 will explore approaches for designing robots for children that incorporate the needs and preferences of children, themselves. An interdisciplinary panel of child-robot interaction (CRI) researchers will introduce workshop participants to projects in Denmark, Russia and the United States of America that have used differing approaches for collecting children's attitudes and ideas about robots, including speculative co-design, quantitative survey-scales, linguistic analysis, and long-term research studies in educational contexts. Workshop participants will also engage in a group, roboethics imaginative exercise with the International Archive of Children's Robot Designs housed at the Center for Children's Speculative Design (a concurrent exhibition on display at Robophilosophy 2016). The published outcomes of this workshop will inform an evolving draft of recommendations and responsible strategies to be shared with scholars, robotics industry thought leaders and international policy makers concerned with the ethical implications of social robots designed to specifically target and impact the lives of children worldwide.