Marie Anne Macadar, Josiane Brietzke Porto, Edimara Luciano
203 - 210
This paper provides a thorough review of publications on smart city from 2000 to 2015 aiming at clarifying the concept. Grounded theory principles are used to systematize and understand the different meanings arising from initiatives in the area. Results have shown that smart city settings in the analyzed period allow the expansion of knowledge on the subject and a better understanding of the concept in its semantic and structural dimensions from the use of coding techniques. The concept of smart city has evolved from an initial emphasis on the technological aspect to a current approach, more focused on human, social aspects and participatory governance aiming at sustainability and quality of life. There have also been efforts to define the theoretical core of the smart city phenomenon due to the prevalence of qualitative and exploratory studies in the period and in recent publications with insufficient definitions to the concept.
As a new form of sustainable development, the concept “Smart Cities” knows a large expansion during the recent years. It represents an urban model, refers to all alternative approaches to metropolitan ICTs case to enhance quality and performance of urban service for better interaction between citizens and government. However, the smart cities based on distributed and autonomous information infrastructure contains millions of information sources that will be expected more than 50 billion devices connected by using IoT or other similar technologies in 2020. Real-time data generated from autonomous and distributed sources can contain all sorts of imperfections regarding on the quality of data e.g. imprecision, uncertainty, ignorance and/or incompleteness. Any imperfection in data within smart city can have an adverse effect over the performance of urban services and decision making. In this context, we address in this article the problem of imperfection in smart city data. We will focus on handling imperfection during the process of information retrieval and data integration and we will create an evidential database by using the evidence theory in order to improve the efficiency of smart city.
Jakar Westerbeek, Jolien Ubacht, Haiko Van Der Voort, Ernst Ten Heuvelhof
222 - 232
Peer-to-peer sharing economy platforms potentially have big effects on values in society. Policymakers need to develop governance arrangements to benefit from the positive effects, while simultaneously mitigate the negative effects. This requires having a structured overview of the effects of these platforms on the diversity of values that are involved. Currently no theoretical overview of these effects on values is available. The objective of this article is to structure the research into the effects of sharing economy platforms. We use a theoretical mapping that was developed by using a Grounded Theory approach. By positioning the literature onto the map, we derived an overview of the extend in which each effected value has been studied so far. Based on this mapping, we propose five research themes into specific effects of peer-to-peer sharing economy platforms: social values, consumer and societal risks, working conditions and labor market dynamics, environmental sustainability and innovation.
This study examines the use of the ‘Jaankari’ e-government project by marginalized communities. The Jaankari system, implemented in the state of Bihar in India, enables people to call in and make information requests to government departments. Citizens may speak in their own language and from their own location. Results of an analysis of the data of the call records, when regressed against socio-economic parameters, show that people from marginal communities rely on this service. Those from non-dominant castes and women, in particular, use the system in excess of those from more privileged backgrounds. The paper shows implications of these findings for e-governance research and practice.
Alsanossi M. Ahmed, Kevan A. Buckley, Robert Moreton, Adel Elmaghraby
241 - 248
Citizen engagement was identified as one of the main factors in e-government success, and many projects failed due to a lack of citizen engagement, particularly in developing countries. The benefits of utilizing serious games in education and training and their positive impacts in the field are expected to be the same in an e-government context, hence, it is argued that the use of serious games to expand knowledge, training, build confidence and trust among citizens can improve their use of e-government service. This research paper discusses a study conducted with the aim of developing a “e-Reservation” service as a serious game that expands knowledge and trains Libyan citizens on how to act when using the actual e-service. The proposed serious game is dedicated to familiarizing players with all rules and system requirements. Results show that the use of serious games has a positive impact on citizens' motivation to engage with e-government.
E-Government is now on the rise in developing countries. While developing countries can “leapfrog” technology generations, the necessary organizational change is another matter. In industrialized countries technical systems have been developed over long time in parallel with institutional development; developing countries hope to make that journey faster. Most of the e-Government implementation research focuses on developed countries. It is important to explore the relation between the literature and the findings in the context of developing countries as to come up with a gap to reduce. An interview study with 56 people in 10 government organizations involved in implementing a government-wide enterprise content management system was conducted to find out how critical success factors found in literature on implementation of information management systems relate to the situation in the Rwanda public sector to discover the step forward in Rwanda. We find a large gap between expectations and results due to a strong focus on the technical tool and little concerns about issues related to organizational change.
Andrew Wilson, Miguel Ferreira, Kuldar Aas, Anders Bo Nielsen, Phillip Mike Tømmerholt
260 - 270
There has been a widespread shift to electronic ways of conducting business that has transformed existing relationships between governments, governments and citizens, and governments and business. This move to electronic interactions is supported by new business systems that streamline and automate transactions, enable integration of information and service delivery and enhance collaboration between participants. Such changes in the way government business is carried out have significant implications for how public administrations document their activities and make that information available to both government and citizens to aid future decision making and accountability. Because digital records are particularly vulnerable to technological obsolescence and media decay, ensuring future access to the information created by government is a challenging issue for all jurisdictions. This paper focus on the E-ARK project, a European endeavour to standardise and create tools for consistently transferring digital records between business systems and digital archives. The E-ARK approach has the potential to simplify and make consistent diverse approaches to solving the issue of how to transfer information between the ICT systems in use in government, and the archives charged with the responsibility for ongoing and management of the information considered to be of long-term significance.
The research investigates the link between environmental information and environmental policies, pointing out how, even now, complexity in creation, capture and analysis of first ones makes difficult building knowledge basis for decisions, in spite of variety of available tools with several analytical capabilities. Particularly, research introduces an analysis of criticisms related to environmental information, among which its fragmentary nature, high variety of sources, incompleteness, difficult accessibility, validation lack, multiple formats etc., and, considering policy cycle, it proposes some paths to strengthen the link between environmental information and policies. These paths have been defined in a context characterized by an increasing spread of information and communication technologies; these, moreover, now open also to new scenarios, where citizen science and volunteer geographic information become new and additional sources of information, even if not official, for environmental and not only environmental data, useful to fill potential incompleteness.
This article shows the results obtained in the application of a model to assess the digital maturity of a government at a country level. The model, based on maturity model concepts, identifies the relevant variables that need to be improved in the implementation of the digital strategy. This tool shows the weaknesses of the digital strategy guiding the generation of public policies.
Many governments around the world, including South Africa, are spending millions on improving their e-Government services to allow citizens to interact with government more freely than before. Although the evolution of e-Government started during the early 1990s, it has not achieved the same success in terms of citizen participation as e-commerce. According to the e-Government Readiness Index, South Africa is considered ready for e-Government. However, actual citizen participation in e-Government remains low. Thus, this paper sets out to investigate the technology, organisation and environment factors which impact on information access and citizen participation in e-Government. A model for improving access to information for citizens through e-government is proposed. The elements of this model are derived from an extensive literature review of studies in similar developing economies, while citizen-related factors are confirmed through questionnaire findings. This model can be used to identify areas that need to be addressed in order to ensure that information access and citizen participation in e-Government is enhanced.
The use of information technology can increase the quality of life of senior citizens. The elderly tend to be more cautious and seek greater certitude before they act when compared to younger individuals. In Brazil, the elderly are already 13% of the population. The objective of this research was to study what factors influence the elderly in the use of e-government in Brazil. The focus of this study was to investigate an initiative of the Brazilian government to computerize fiscal control mechanisms. We interviewed 137 elderly individuals who have used the program. We used a quantitative methodology for the development of this research, through the multivariate analysis technique of structural equation modeling. The study presented a robust model with a high explanatory power, in which the influencing factors are: Performance Expectancy, Facilitating Conditions and Habit. The research assists in the participation and involvement of the elderly in the current e-government development phase in Brazil, exposing their perceptions.
E-government development is more advanced in developed countries compared to developing countries. Organizational transformation by e-government in developing countries is still at infancy stage. Incremental or radical changes seem to be a subsequent stage in settings where technological implementations are still fresh like in developing countries. In a journey towards organizational transformation, this research work, using design science research, aims 1) to find critical factors influencing implementation of enterprise content management (ECM) in Rwanda as one of the developing countries,2) to carry out an investigation on how these factors are related to literature in order to detect e-government development stage and 3) to eventually propose a next step towards organizational transformation. Preliminarily results show that implementation of ECM in Rwanda has been focusing on deploying a technical tool in government organizations and this implies that work processes re-design and change management are imperative. The overall contribution of this entire study in progress is two-fold: 1) to suggest a practical way in solving some issues related to efficiency in administrative activities for practitioners towards organizational transformation in a developing country and 2) to create new knowledge for e-government researchers on organization matters especially in developing countries.
The e-government as an option of administrative is a one-way street. The citizens that use its benefits are the ones that demand transparency and efficiency from the public administration. In Brazil, the e-services offered by the government aren't widely used, except when they are mandatory and directly linked to the finances. This document presents an ongoing study in the scope of the Doctoral Program in Information and Communication in Digital Platforms of Aveiro University and Porto University (Portugal), and has the objective to construct an info-communicational model that defines a platform to support the environmental complaint service of the Environment Department of Manaus (SEMMAS), in Brazil.
The public sector needs to transform itself in order to reap full benefits of new digital technologies. In this regard, a paradigm shift is proposed from New Public Management (NPM) to Digital-Era Governance (DEG). Moving from NPM to DEG entails a full socio-technical change, and it is necessary to investigate what new business models will be needed, and what the impact will be on management, strategy, and governance. This research investigates the implications of moving from NPM to DEG. First, by applying Action Design Research (ADR) in the context of a government lab to examine the implications on strategy in a DEG context. Second, this thesis investigates how the literature is paving the way towards DEG by performing a literature review on open data case studies. In this specific aspect of DEG transformation, focused on ecosystem platforms, it explores how knowledge-based interactions are fostered by open data platforms. Together with the understanding of how to design a DEG strategy, this contributes to a holistic view on how to move towards DEG.
The objective of this research is to analyze two important aspects: e-government processes associated with migration and the centrality of the user in e-government projects. This study aims to address migration issues, in particular the modernization of National Migration Institute (NMI) at the Mexico's southern border, in the city of Tapachula state of Chiapas the border with Guatemala, specifically with those migrants who came to Mexico for labor objectives. Regarding the second, studies of e-government have not addressed in depth the centrality of the citizen. They have partially studied some way, either from the supply side or the demand side, so this study aims to analyze the three elements: organizational process, web portal, and necessities and capabilities from user's perspective.
The electronic cooperation of public organisations is a precondition for better public service provisioning to citizens and companies. Interoperability is a key challenge for electronic cooperation. Interoperability is a multilateral issue that incorporates technical, managerial and socioeconomic aspects. In this environment, assessing interoperability of systems and organisations is becoming increasingly important. However, interoperability assessment is a complex task. In the literature, a number of interoperability assessment models have been proposed. These incorporate different metrics and attributes to address one or some interoperability aspects. Currently, however, no commonly accepted eGovernment interoperability assessment framework exists. The aim of this PhD thesis is to develop and evaluate a comprehensive eGovernment interoperability assessment framework.
E-government evaluation is challenging. However, it is important to design evaluations that support development towards the grand though often distant goal of better government. Although developing countries now have the same technology with developed ones, they still need to “leapfrog” in terms of administrative maturity. This is difficult as it requires changes not only in processes but also policies and organizational culture. The objective of this research is to contribute to finding ways of using evaluation effectively to support e-government development as a whole, including not just technology but also organizational maturity for least developed countries. Design science research methodology is used to investigate the problems involved, propose and develop an artifact to solve at least parts of the problems, and to test and evaluate the artifacts effectiveness. This research will also help to increase awareness among the e-government practitioners in Rwanda on how to achieve the ambitious e-government's goals.
eParticipation provides a means to involve citizens in eGovernment decisions. The ease of access to eParticipation processes has raised the issue of the trustworthiness of both the institutions promoting processes and the citizens participating in these processes. Our research aims at obtaining a generic eParticipation framework enriched with trust management techniques like the ones used in e-Commerce and social networks. Our work plan includes the following steps: making a systematic review for extract the knowledge base, designing an eParticipation framework definition and incorporating trust techniques, developing support software, implementing several case studies in Spain and Ecuador, and providing results and evaluation.
E-government has brought a lot of opportunities to public services. However, alongside opportunities, there are many challenges with e-government implementations, one of which is security. Security incidents in e-government have resulted in loss of money, revenue, resources and trust by the users of the systems. There are a number of possible measures to mitigate such security incidents, these include: physical security and system security. In this research we focus on one of the elements of system security – authentication. We propose an interoperable Identity Authentication Framework for e-government. The research will adopt a qualitative case study and design science. This will be complemented with behavioural research approach. To achieve the main objectives, there are a number of activities planned for this research. These activities are: investigation of maturity level for e-government systems; assessing information security maturity level; evaluation of authentication systems in use; design the interoperable identity authentication framework; and evaluation of the proposed framework. The framework will go through a number iterations in design and evaluations.
Information and communication technologies (ICTs) seem to offer rich opportunities for engaging citizens and businesses in the co-creation of public policies and services, promising to fundamentally transform the way public decisions are made. However, existing empirical evidence suggests the results of collaborative innovations in public administration tend to be mostly unimpressive and hardly transformational. This doctoral research project asks why this is the case and what factors shape the success and failure of ICT-driven co-creation. These questions are addressed by a qualitative investigation of the various drivers and barriers that affect the development, implementation, diffusion and outcomes of ICT-enabled co-creation initiatives. The thesis also explores the strategies that public sector organizations could employ to avoid failure and feed success.
This paper presents research findings of reviewing 42 studies concerning electronic participation (e-Participation) through social media. Overall, such initiatives have reflected the prevalence of a one-way communication strategy, what do not considerably foster citizen involvement in policy decision making process.