Social Interaction and the feeling of emotional closeness to beloved ones is mainly driven by the communication with each other. For patients suffering from a serious disease due to intense mood changes, it is difficult to keep regular contact with relatives. This affects the need for direct and verbal communication with relatives. To continue the participation in each others lives, we have developed a concept to share daily activities, current moods and presence information using a smart living room table. A first lab study with a prototype showed promising results with regard to expressiveness, joy of use, and usability.
Based on a 2013 statistic published by Thai with Disability foundation, five percent of Thailand's population are disabled people. Six hundred thousand of them have mobility disability, and the number is increasing every year. To support them, the Thai government has implemented a number of disability laws and policies. One of the policies is to better disabled people's quality of life by adapting their houses to facilitate their activities. However, the policy has not been fully realized yet—there is still no specific guideline for housing adaptation for people with disabilities. This study is an attempt to address the lack of standardized criteria for such adaptation by developing a number of effective ones. Our development had 3 objectives: first, to identify the body functioning of a group of people with mobility disability according to the international classification functioning concept (ICF); second, to perform post-occupancy evaluation of this group and their houses; and third, with the collected data, to have a group of multidisciplinary experts cooperatively develop criteria for housing adaptation. The major findings were that room dimensions and furniture materials really had an impact on accessibility and toilet as well as bed room were the most difficult areas to access.
The related concepts of Universal Design, Inclusive Design, and Design For All, all recognise that no one solution will fit the requirements of every possible user. This paper considers the extent to which current developments in smart home technology can help to reduce the numbers of users for whom mainstream technology is not sufficiently inclusive, proposing a flexible approach to user interface (UI) implementation focussed on the capabilities of the user. This implies development of the concepts underlying Universal Design to include the development of a flexible inclusive support infrastructure, servicing the requirements of individual users and their personalised user interface devices.
Sufficient contrast between text and background is needed to achieve sufficient readability. WCAG2.0 provides a specific definition of sufficient contrast on the web. However, the definition is hard to understand and most designers thus use contrast calculators to validate their colour choices. Often, such checks are performed after design and this may be too late. This paper proposes a colour selection approach based on three-dimensional visualisation of the colour space. The complex non-linear relationships between the colour components become comprehendible when viewed in 3D. The method visualises the available colours in an intuitive manner and allows designers to check a colour against the set of other valid colours. Unlike the contrast calculators, the proposed method is proactive and fun to use. A colour space builder was developed and the resulting models were viewed with a point cloud viewer. The technique can be used as both a design tool and a pedagogical aid to teach colour theory and design.
We evaluate the colour coding of a web map traffic information service based on profiles simulating colour vision deficiencies. Based on these simulations and principles for universal design, we propose adjustments of the existing colours creating more readable maps for the colour vision deficient observers.
In 2012 the headquarters for the umbrella organisation ‘Disabled people's organisation Denmark’ opened, an office building that offers workspace for the administrations of all the member organisations. The ambition for the building was to be the most accessible office building in the world; regardless of disability everybody should be able to move around in the house and work in any of the offices. One, of many ambitions, was to design a functional and effective lighting scheme using as much daylight as possible, and integrating the artificial lighting design and daylight design. The lighting was intended to support all work stations in both one-man offices and open-plan offices with a functional and comfortable visual environment, fit for all users, regardless of disability. Based on a post occupancy evaluation conducted 2 years after the organisations moved in, the present paper evaluates the lighting design in the offices. It reveals that not all the people working in the offices have the same needs and preferences of lighting conditions; these differ even among users with the same disability. Accordingly the findings lead to a discussion on how to understand the concept of Universal Design. Based on the lighting theory of Peter Boyce, the paper discusses the idea of encompassing everyone in the same solution.
Norwegian legislation has requirements concerning luminance contrast for different elements in staircases. This paper investigates how architects work to meet the requirements, how to measure the actual built luminance contrasts and finally 21 staircases are measured using two different methods. The results show that some architects do not reflect on luminance contrasts at all, some use their “experience” and some try to measure the reflectance value of different materials during planning. The investigations also reveal that there is not any official predefined way to control luminance contrast, and this investigation shows that different approaches will give different results. To perform the measuring of the built staircases, it has been necessary to develop a defined measuring method. The results of the measuring generally shows that only a few of the staircases studied fully meet the legislation requirements.
People with colour vision deficiency (CVD) have difficulty seeing full colour contrast and can miss some of the features in a scene. As a part of universal design, researcher have been working on how to modify and enhance the colour of images in order to make them see the scene with good contrast. For this, it is important to know how the original colour image is seen by different individuals with CVD. This paper proposes a methodology to simulate accurate colour deficient images from a spectral image using cone sensitivity of different cases of deficiency. As the method enables generation of accurate colour deficient image, the methodology is believed to help better understand the limitations of colour vision deficiency and that in turn leads to the design and development of more effective imaging technologies for better and wider accessibility in the context of universal design.
Accessibility is not the same for all of us. This study concerns people with short stature, their functioning and challenges in equality and accessibility in our environment based on average measures.
To achieve a Universal Design, designers must consider diverse users' physical and functional requirements for their products. However, satisfying these requirements and obtaining the information which is necessary for designing a universal product is very difficult. Therefore, we propose a new design method based on the concept of set-based design to solve these issues. This paper discusses the suitability of proposed design method by applying bicycle frame design problem.
Cultural tourism is considered to be a niche market and little attention has been paid to it, as compared with mass tourism. Moreover, visitors have little motivation to visit actual historical sites and read the story displayed behind the exhibitions. These issues highlight a good opportunity to increase further potential extended tourism and increase the motivation of visitors. To broaden and increase the potential market, this study applies inclusive design principles as ‘understanding and designing for diversity’ and presents reports on the first study. To increase the motivation of tourists, this study adopts digital storytelling as ‘the guideline to increase motivation’ and illustrates this in the second study.
Sıkışma is a transmedia information design project, which focuses on Ihlamur Pavilions and Ihlamur area. Ihlamur hosts Ihlamur Pavilions since 19th Century. It is located within Beşiktaş district in Istanbul. Nowadays the buildings belong to TBMM (The Grand National Assembly of Turkey) National Palaces and used as a Museum- Café. There is a conventional wayfinding & signage system for outdoor areas of the Pavilions. The system also includes two separate boards focusing on the history of Ihlamur and Ihlamur Pavilions. However, the information provided on these boards seems inadequate and the boards are physically damaged. According Universal Design approach it is possible to achieve good and functional design and solve the inadequacy problem by physically fixing information boards and re-setting the environment around the information boards according to Universal Design principles. Although, these principles provide solutions for important issues such as mobility, stability and accessibility, it doesn't provide sufficient proof of user engagement in terms of the creation of the content. The project Sıkışma offers an approach, which is concerned with content as with form and suggests that it is possible to infer a universal form from the content created through personal experience of the designer as a user. It is also intended to represent the past and the present through the project and to create an understanding of plausible scenarios of the unknown future in the viewers' mind.
A nation is recognized by a range of its significant historical, cultural and natural properties. These properties are generally preserved and maintained either by national administration or by private owners and charitable trusts due to higher value of their cultural inheritance and termed globally as heritage or historic sites. Heritage sites are a significant asset, a unique and irreplaceable resource which reflects a rich and diverse expression of past societies and forms an integral part of local, regional and national cultural identity. Today, heritage sites also play an important role in communication and knowledge exchange. Thus the rapidly increasing heritage tourism industry faces several challenges too. One of the challenges is that there is a segment of society who is not yet able to equally enjoy the visit to historic structures/sites and attractions, facilities and services. This paper aims to study the experience and develop understanding regarding the heritage structures/sites approached and interacted by diverse users. This study is an outcome of a hands on workshop conducted with diverse users at various historic sites in the city of Jaipur viz. at The City Palace Complex, Jaipur, Jaigarh Fort and the Haveli at Kanota near to Jaipur India.
Universal Design in planning for exhibiting animal collections for the public has been a part of the culture of one particular zoo in the US. This paper looks at the steps in designing a zoological park that is universally accessible to all visitors.
Current accessibility research shows that in the web development, the process itself may lead to inaccessible web sites and applications. Common practices typically do not allow sufficient testing. The focus is mainly on complying with minimum standards, and treating accessibility compliance as a sort of bug-fixing process, missing the user perspective. In addition, there is an alarming lack of knowledge and experience with accessibility issues. It has also been argued that bringing accessibility into the development process at all stages is the only way to achieve the highest possible level of accessibility. The work presented in this paper is based on a previous project focusing on guidelines for developing accessible rich Internet applications. The guidelines were classified as either process-oriented or technology-oriented. In this paper, we examine the process-oriented guidelines and give a practical perspective on how these guidelines will make the development process more accessibility-friendly.
Universal design in context of digitalisation has become an integrated part of international conventions and national legislations. A goal is to make the Web accessible for people of different genders, ages, backgrounds, cultures and physical, sensory and cognitive abilities. Political demands for universally designed solutions have raised questions about how it is achieved in practice. Developers, designers and legislators have looked towards the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) for answers. WCAG 2.0 has become the de facto standard for universal design on the Web. Some of the guidelines are directed at the general population, while others are targeted at more specific user groups, such as the visually impaired or hearing impaired. Issues related to cognitive impairments such as dyslexia receive less attention, although dyslexia is prevalent in at least 5–10% of the population. Navigation and search are two common ways of using the Web. However, while navigation has received a fair amount of attention, search systems are not explicitly included, although search has become an important part of people's daily routines. This paper discusses WCAG in the context of dyslexia for the Web in general and search user interfaces specifically. Although certain guidelines address topics that affect dyslexia, WCAG does not seem to fully accommodate users with dyslexia.
The readability of web texts affects accessibility. The Web Content Accessibility guidelines (WCAG) state that the recommended reading level should match that of someone who has completed basic schooling. However, WCAG does not give advice on what constitutes an appropriate reading level. Web authors need tools to help composing WCAG compliant texts, and specific criteria are needed. Classic readability metrics are generally based on lengths of words and sentences and have been criticized for being over-simplistic. Automatic measures and classifications of texts' reading levels employing more advanced constructs remain an unresolved problem. If such measures were feasible, what should these be? This work examines three language constructs not captured by current readability indices but believed to significantly affect actual readability, namely, relative clauses, garden path sentences, and left-branching structures. The goal is to see whether quantifications of these stylistic features reflect readability and how they correspond to common readability measures. Manual assessments of a set of authentic web texts for such uses were conducted. The results reveal that texts related to narratives such as children's stories, which are given the highest readability value, do not contain these constructs. The structures in question occur more frequently in expository texts that aim at educating or disseminating information such as strategy and journal articles. The results suggest that language anti-patterns hold potential for establishing a set of deeper readability criteria.
This paper gives an overview of the Norwegian legislation on Universal Design of information and communication technology (ICT) and how the Norwegian Authority for Universal Design of ICT works to enforce and achieve the goals behind the legislation. The Authority uses indicators to check websites for compliance with the regulations. This paper describes the rationale and intended use for the indicators and how they are used for both supervision and benchmarks as well as a way of gathering data to give an overview of the current state of Universal Design of websites in Norway.
This paper describes the design and evaluation of a Web Accessibility Information Resource (WebAIR) for supporting web developers to create and evaluate accessible websites. WebAIR was designed with web developers in mind, recognising their current working practices and acknowledging their existing understanding of web accessibility. We conducted an evaluation with 32 professional web developers in which they used either WebAIR or an existing accessibility information resource, the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines, to identify accessibility problems. The findings indicate that several design decisions made in relation to the language, organisation, and volume of WebAIR were effective in supporting web developers to undertake web accessibility evaluations.
Research has yet to provide an interdisciplinary framework for examining ICT accessibility as it relates to Universal Design. This article assesses the conceptualizations and interdisciplinarity of ICT accessibility and Universal Design research. This article uses a grounded theory approach to pose a multilevel framework for Universal Design. The macro level, consists of scholarship that examines the context of Universal Design, and is typified by legal and sociological studies that investigate social norms and environments. The meso level, which consists of scholarship that examines activity in Universal Design as an approach to removing barriers for use and participation. The meso level is typified by studies of computer science and engineering that investigate the use of technology as a mechanism of participation. The micro level consists of scholarship that examines individuals and groups in Universal Design as an approach to understanding human characteristics. The micro level is typified by studies of human factors and psychology. This article argues that the multilevel framework for Universal Design may help remove the artificial separation between disciplines concerned with ICT accessibility and promote more fruitful research and development.
We examined fourteen accessibility evaluation methods and put them into four categories based on the knowledge and resources required to perform them. We also classified the methods based on whether they evaluated technical or usable accessibility. Then, we selected four of these methods from different categories to evaluate accessibility of an e-ID solution. We looked for confusing and critical issues. Each method found unique issues and overlapping issues, but no single method found more than half of the issues. This information should help inform future accessibility evaluations of other solutions and can aid other teams in selecting methods based on their specific goals and resources.
A recent study in South Africa on the barriers to banking which involved customers in three disability groups namely mobility, hearing and vision has highlighted that currently banking in South Africa is not accessible. Customers with a disability are unable to independently use banking services across a wide range of channels. Exclusion from something as fundamental as managing their own financial affairs raise serious human rights concerns and requires committed action from decision-makers to address this. The fact that solutions to all of the identified barriers have been successfully implemented in banks in other parts of the world for many years emphasize that this is not a technical challenge. While some solutions require complex or expensive changes such as removing physical access barriers and ensuring that digital channels meet internationally accepted standards of accessibility, there are many simple and low-cost solutions which can be implemented immediately and would make a world of difference to these customers and their experience of banking. One key barrier which emerged in all the focus groups and surveys is attitudinal barriers – staff who are unwilling to assist, impatient, interact with the customer's assistant instead of directly with them and lack basic skills on how to interact with someone who has a disability. A comprehensive framework of banking was used to identify a wide range of barriers. The barriers were classified as attitudinal, barriers to physical access, digital access barriers, barriers to information, communication barriers and some generic concerns such as safe evacuation during emergencies and alternative authentication. Both the barriers and the solutions where ranked by participants. From a theoretical perspective, the benefit of a customer-centric approach to understanding these barriers and the innovation potential of a Universal Design approach is affirmed by this study.
Everyone has a right to take part in cultural events and activities, such as music performances and music making. Enforcing that right, within Universal Design, is often limited to a focus on physical access to public areas, hearing aids etc., or groups of persons with special needs performing in traditional ways. The latter might be people with disabilities, being musicians playing traditional instruments, or actors playing theatre. In this paper we focus on the innovative potential of including people with special needs, when creating new cultural activities. In our project RHYME our goal was to create health promoting activities for children with severe disabilities, by developing new musical and multimedia technologies. Because of the users' extreme demands and rich contribution, we ended up creating both a new genre of musical instruments and a new art form. We call this new art form Embodied and Distributed Parallel DJing, and the new genre of instruments for Empowering Multi-Sensorial Things.
A common challenge for government administrations that aim to improve the delivery of information and services to citizens is to go beyond a government-centred approach. By focusing on citizens and the needs of a wide range of citizens, Universal Design (UD) can help to increase the effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction of government services. This paper examines the case of an internationally recognised Chilean government service delivery programme inspired by UD principles known as ChileAtiende (“ChileService”). A brief account of its creation and current status is provided.
There have been a number of crowdsourcing projects to support people with disabilities. However, there is little exploration of what motivates people to participate in such crowdsourcing projects. In this study we investigated how different motivational factors can affect the participation of people in a crowdsourcing project to support visually disabled students. We are developing “DescribeIT”, a crowdsourcing project to support blind and partially students by having sighted people describe images in digital learning resources. We investigated participants' behavior of the DescribeIT project using three conditions: one intrinsic motivation condition and two extrinsic motivation conditions. The results showed that participants were significantly intrinsically motivated to participate in the DescribeIT project. In addition, participants' intrinsic motivation dominated the effect of the two extrinsic motivational factors in the extrinsic conditions.